NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 28 Solution – Carbon and its Compounds
NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Solution Chapter 28 Carbon and its Compounds. NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 28 Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Class 10 Science Notes.
NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 28 Solution
|Science and Technology (212)|
Question Answer, Solution, Notes
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.1
1) What is the valency of carbon?
Ans: – Valancy of carbon is 4.
2) What is the nature of bonds formed by carbon?
Ans: – The bind which formed by carbon is covalent bond.
3) Why carbon forms a large number of compounds?
Ans: – As carbon has different property like catenation as well as the possibility of existence of isomers and presence ofvarious functional groups.
4) Name the branch of chemistry which is devoted to the study of carbon compounds.
Ans: – The chemistry branch which is devoted to the study of carbon compounds is organic chemistry.
5) How many electrons are needed by a carbon atom to complete its octet?
Ans: – The number of electrons which is needed by carbon atoms to complete its octet is 4.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.2
1) Which allotropic form of carbon has been discovered few years back?
Ans: – The allotropic form of carbon which has been discovered few years back is fullerenes.
2) Each carbon atom is linked to how many carbon atoms in
Ans: – The diamond compound is attached with the 4-carbon compound.
The graphite compound attached with the 3-carbon compound.
3) Why diamond has high melting point?
Ans: – The bond in the diamond atoms is covalent so we need high energy to overcome this bonding. So because of this bonding capacity the melting point is high.
4) Is diamond a conductor of electricity? Give reason for your answer.
Ans: – As there is no such free electron in a diamond compound so it will not conduct the electricity.
5) Why is graphite a good lubricant?
Ans: – The reason of the diamond is good lubricant is the loosely layer of carbon bounded in it.
6) Give two uses of graphite.
Ans: – Uses of graphite-
- Used as pencil lead.
- Uses as electrode.
7) What kind of structure is possessed by fullerenes?
Ans: – in fullerenes the structure is like football like closed structure.
8) Name the three microcrystalline forms of carbon and give their use.
Ans: – The three crystalline presents in carbon iscoke and carbon black
Charcoal – It is used in absorption of coloured impurities
Coke – It is used as a reducing agent in metallurgy
Carbon black – Used as a pigment in inks.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.3
1) Classify the following compounds as organic or inorganic:
(ii) calcium carbide
(iv) carbon dioxide
(v) carbon disulphide.
Ans: – Organic: – Sugar, kerosene.
Inorganic compound: – calcium carbides, carbon dioxide, carbon disulphide.
2)Give two differences between organic and inorganic compounds.
|Organic compound||Inorganic compound|
|Low melting and boiling point.||High melting and boiling point.|
|Dissolved in organic solvent.||Dissolved in in organic solvent.|
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.4
1) What is dry ice?
Ans: – The dry acid is the solid carbon dioxide.
2) Which gas, carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide, is a major air pollutant?
Ans: – Carbon monoxide is the gas which is present in major number in air.
3) Which gas is used in carbonated drinks?
Ans: – In carbonated drinks carbon dioxide gas is used.
4) Name the gas which is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect.
Ans: – The major contributor to the greenhouse gas is CO2.
5) Name the products obtained by the fermentation of sugar.
Ans: – Ethanol and CO2 is obtain by the fermentation of sugar.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.5
1) What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated compounds?
Ans: – The saturated compounds have single bonds between carbon atoms but in unsaturated compounds double or triple bonds in between carbon atoms.
2) Give two examples each of (i) saturated compounds and (ii) unsaturated compounds.
Ans: – The saturated compound is methane and propane.
The unsaturated compound is propyne and ethene.
3) Name the alkane which has three carbon atoms.
Ans: – The alkane which has three carbon atoms is propane.
4) Define isomers.
Ans: – The compound which has same element but the structure is different these types of compounds us know as isomers.
5) What is the full form of IUPAC?
Ans: – The full form of IUPAC is International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
6) Name the following alkyl groups:
(i) — CH3 (ii) — C2H5.
Ans: – First one is methyl group and the second one is Ethyl group.
7) Give IUPAC name of these compounds
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.6
1)Identify the functional groups present in the following compounds:
(i) CH3CH2OH (ii) CH3Cl (iii) C2H2 (iv) CH3 — COOH.
Ans: – The functional group present in CH3CH2OH is (-OH) or hydroxyl group.
The functional group in CH3Cl is (-Cl) or chloride group.
C2H2 is an alkyne.
In CH3COOH the functional group is carboxyl group.
INTEXT QUESTIONS 28.7
1) What is wood alcohol?
Ans: – The wood alcohol is methanol.
2) What is glycerine? Which functional group is present in it.
Ans: – The IUPAC name of Glycerineis 1,2,3-propanetriol.
The hydroxyl functional group is present in glycerine.
3) How is ethanol produced?
Ans: – Ethanol is produced by the fermentation of carbohydrates and starch present in the substance grapes, barley etc.
4) Give two examples of compounds having aldehyde functional group.
Ans: – The compound which has aldehyde fictional group is formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.
5) What is the use of acetone?
Ans: – The acetone is used in nail polish remover.
6) Which acid is present in vinegar?
Ans: – In vinegar acetic acids is present.
7) Name the compound which has an aldehyde group and is used as a flavour.
Ans: – Vanillin has an aldehyde group and used as a flavour.
8) Give IUPAC Name of the following compounds
Ans: – Ethanol.
Ans: – Ethanoic acids.
Ans: – Methanol.
(d) CH3 — CO — CH3.
Ans: – Propanone.
9) Name the functional group present in the following compounds
(a) C2H5OH: – (-OH)
(b) CH3COOH: – (-COOH)
(c) HCHO: – (-OH).
(d) CH3-CO-CH3: – (-CO)
1) Why carbon cannot form ionic bonds?
Ans: – As the carbon from a compound by sharing electron of each other so any ionic bond is not possible there.
2) What is catenation?
Ans: – The catenation is a property in which the same types of elementsform a compound. In case of hydrocarbon, we see that catenation is formed.
3) What types of bonds are formed by the carbon atom?
Ans: – Covalent bond are formed by carbon atom.
4) Name the three allotropic forms of carbon.
Ans: – The allotrope of carbon is graphite, fullerenes and diamond.
5) How do natural diamonds form?
Ans: – At a depth approx. 150 km in mantle in earth core from the surface at high pressure.
6) Name two places where diamonds are found.
Ans: – Russia, south Africa.
7) Why is diamond hard?
Ans: – As the strongest covalent bond is present in carbon the diamond is hard in nature.
8) Give two uses of diamond.
Ans: – For the cutting of glass and in ornaments we use the diamond.
9) Compare the physical properties of diamond and graphite.
Ans: – The graphite and the structure of the diamond are not same as the shape of diamond is like football. And graphite uses in electrode but the diamond not being used in that.
10) How can graphite be converted into diamond?
Ans: – The graphite after applying extreme pressure and high temperature would be converted into diamond.
11) Create a flow chart as shown below to compare the various allotropes of carbon.
12) What is activated charcoal? How is it prepared?
Ans: – If we heat at temperature of 8000-to-9000-degreeselkies in closed air contact and passes the steam over it then we will get the activated charcoal.
13) Given below are pictures of three microcrystalline or amorphous form of graphite. Name them and write one use of each.
14) Name the products formed when
(i) Wood is strongly heated in absence of air.
Ans: – If wood is heated in absence of air, then charcoal will be produced.
(ii) Coal is strongly heated in the absence of air.
Ans: – Activated charcoal.
(iii) Hydrocarbons are heated in limited supply of oxygen.
Ans: – Carbon monoxide or CO.
15)Why is CO toxic in nature?
Ans: – If it goes through the blood of our body then the oxygen intake by different parts of the body affected.
16)Give two uses of CO and CO2.
Ans: –In the reduction of carbonyl base metal CO is used but the CO2 is used in the making of carbonated soda.
17) For the following state one point of differences between the following pairsof terms
(i) Organic compounds and inorganic compounds.
Ans: – Organic compounds has low melting and boiling point but inorganic compound has high melting and boiling point.
(ii) Carbon Monoxide and carbon dioxide.
Ans: – In the reduction of carbonyl base metal CO is used but the CO2 is used in the making of carbonated soda.
(iii) Aliphatic and aromatic compounds.
Ans: – Aliphatic is highly reactive and less stable but the aromatic is less reactive and highly stable in nature.
18)What is a homologous series?
Ans: – A homologous series means the functional group is same in each of the compound.
19) Name 10 carbon compounds of a homologous series. Write their molecular formula and derive a general formula for the series.
20)What is general formula for the homologous series of
(i) alkanes (ii) alkenes (iii) alkynes?
Ans: – Alkanes: – CnH2n+2;
Alkenes: – CnH2n;
Alkynes: – CnH2n-2.
21)What is the molecular formula for ethane?
Ans: – The molecular formula of ethane is C2H6.
22) Give here four prefixes: But- , Eth- , Meth- , Prop- , and Suffix –ane todevelop the names of alkanes. How many carbon atoms do each of thesealkanes contain?
Ans: – So, these are Butane, Ethane, Methane, Propane, Butane.
23) Draw the Chemical Structure of Butane and Isobutene and based on it justify that they are isomers.
24) Give IUPAC name of the following compounds:
(i) CH3 — CH = CH2.
Ans: – Prop-2-in.
(ii) CH3 — HC = CH — CH3.
Ans: – But-2-in.
(iii) CH3 — OH.
Ans: – Methanol.
25) Give an example of a compound which has carboxylic (-COOH) functional group.
Ans: – Acetic acid or CH3COOH.
26) (a) Of the following which has single bond, double bonds and triple bonds between C, C atoms? Alkynes, alkane, alkene.
Ans: – Single bond: – Alkane, Double bond: – Alkene, Triple bond: – Alkynes.
(b) Name their simplest compounds and write the molecular formula.
Ans: – The simplest compound is methane or CH4.
27) Give one use of each of the following:
(i) Methanol (ii) ethanol (iii) glycerine.
Ans: – Methanol is used in organic synthesis.
Ethanol: – In engine fuel.
Glycerine: – For the prevent of dry or rough like a moisture.
28) What is the difference between the structure of an aldehyde and a ketone?
29) What is
(i) dry ice.
Ans: – Solid CO2.
(ii) wood alcohol.
Ans: – Methanol.
Ans: – HCHO
Ans: – CH3COOH.
30)To which group of carbon compounds do each of the carbon compounds used for the following belong?
(i) To ripen fruits
(ii) In oxy-acetylene torch.
Ans: – (i) Ethylene gas is used.
(ii)Oxyacetylene torch: – acetylene.
31)Name the carboxylic acid present in vitamin C.
Ans: – Ascorbic acids.
32) Which acid is present in citrus fruits?
Ans: – Citric acid is present in citrus fruits.
33) Your teacher has asked you to procure sources of formic acid and butyricacid. Which two sources will you collect and bring?
Ans: – For the formic acid the source is ants.
And butyric acid found in animal fat.
34) Name the carboxylic acids found in:
Ans: – Citric acid.
(ii) Vitamin C.
Ans: –Ascorbic acids.
(iii) Sour milk.
Ans: – Lactic acid.
(iv) Rancid butter
Ans: – Acetic acid.
Ans: – Formic acid.