Elements and symbol

A symbol is the shorthand notion of the elements which can be represented by a sketch or letters etc.

Dalton was the first to used symbols to represent elements in short way but Dalton symbols for elements were difficult to draw and inconvenient to use them So Dalton’s symbols  are only for historical importance. They are not used at all.

Symbols for some elements proposed by Dalton:

Modern Symbols of Elements:

  • Berzelius suggest for symbols of elements .
  • Representation the full name of the elements by using one or two letters from the name of the elements.
  • More and more elements were discovered and international committee was set up called international union of pure and applied chemistry (IUPAC) ,  which approved the name of the  different elements.

Symbols of atom of various elements:

If the symbols of elements has one or two letter of the elements then the first letters of the symbols written as a capital letters (uppercase) and second letter small (lowercase).

  • Example: Symbols derived from English names;

Name of Elements

         Symbols

      Hydrogen

            H
      Helium

            He

       Lithium

            Li

       Boron

            B

      Carbon

            C
Oxygen

            O

Aluminium

Al
     Cobalt

            Co

      Nitrogen

            N
      Fluorine

            F


  • Some symbols of the elements are formed first letter of the elements name and second appearing letter in the name.
  • Example :

Name of Elements

   Symbols

     Chlorine

 Cl
       Zinc

      Zn

     Magnesium

    Mg

  • Some other elements have been taken from the name of Latin, German, or Greek.
  • Example: Symbols derived from Latin names;

     Name of Elements

      Latin name      Symbols

Sodium

  Natrium

       Na

Iron Ferrum

        Fe

Potassium

Kelium          K
Copper Cuprum

       Cu

Silver

Argentum        Ag
Tin Stannum

Sn

Antimony

Stibium Sb
Tungsten Wolfram

        W

Gold

Aurum         Au
Mercury Hydrargyrum

          Hg

Lead

Plumbum

Pb


Question answer

1) What is symbol?

Answer: A symbol is the shorthand notion of the elements which can be represented by a sketch or letters etc.

2) Why Dalton’s symbols are rejected by scientists?

Answer:Dalton’s symbols are rejected by scientist becauseDalton’s symbols for elements were difficult to draw and inconvenient to use them So Dalton’s symbols  are only for historical importance. They are not used at all.

3) Why Berzelius symbols are accepted by IUPAC. ?

Answer: Berzelius symbols are accepted by IUPAC because Berzelius suggest for symbols  of elements. Representation the full name of the elements by using one or two letters from the name of the elements. And it is easy to remember all different elements symbols.

4) Give the example of two letter elements symptoms?

Answer: Aluminium (Al) ,    Cobalt (Co)  , Chlorine (Cl) etc.

5) Give the example of Latin word elements symbols?

Answer:  Antimony  (Stibium ,Sb) Sodium (Natrium  Na) Iron (Ferrum Fe) etc.

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