Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21 Pdf
Tamilnadu Board Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21: Tamilnadu State Board Solution Class 9 Science Chapter 21 – NUTRITION AND HEALTH.
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21: Overview
NUTRITION AND HEALTH
Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Solutions Chapter 21 Pdf
Nutrition and Health
Choose the correct answer.
1) The nutrient required in trace amounts to accomplish various body functions is _______________
Ans: c) Vitamin.
Because, vitamins are the micronutrients which requires to our body in smaller amount.
2) The physician who discovered that scurvy can be cured by ingestion of citrus fruits is _______________
a) James Lind
b) Louis Pasteur
c) Charles Darwin
d) Isaac Newton
Ans: a) James Lind
3) The sprouting of onion and potatoes can be delayed by the process of _______________
Ans: b) Irradiation
4) Food and Adulteration Act was enforced by Government of India in the year _______________
Ans: b) 1954
5) An internal factor responsible for spoilage of food is _______________
a) Wax coating
b) Contaminated utensils
c) Moisture content in food
d) Synthetic preservatives
Ans: c) Moisture content in food
Because, due to the moisture content in the food, food spoilage will occur.
Fill in the blanks.
1) Deficiency diseases can be prevented by taking _______________ diet.
Ans: Deficiency diseases can be prevented by taking balanced diet.
2) The process of affecting the natural composition and the quality of food substance is known as _______________
Ans: The process of affecting the natural composition and the quality of food substance is known as food spoilage.
3) Vitamin D is called as _______________ vitamin as it can be synthesized by the body from the rays of sunlight.
Ans: Vitamin D is called as calciferol vitamin as it can be synthesized by the body from the rays of sunlight.
4) Dehydration is based on the principle of removal of _______________.
Ans: Dehydration is based on the principle of removal of water.
5) Food should not be purchased beyond the date of _______________
Ans: Food should not be purchased beyond the date of expiry.
6) AGMARK is used to certify ______________ and _______________ products in India.
Ans: AGMARK is used to certify livestock and agricultural products in India.
III. State whether true or false. If false, correct the statement.
1) Iron is required for the proper functioning of thyroid gland.
Correct statement: Iodine is required for the proper functioning of thyroid gland.
2) Vitamins are required in large quantities for normal functioning of the body
Correct statement: Vitamins are required in small quantities for normal functioning of the body. And they are the micronutrients.
3) Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin
4) Lack of adequate fats in diet may result in low body weight
5) ISI mark is mandatory to certify agricultural products.
Correct statement: AGMARK is mandatory to certify agricultural products.
Match the following.
Sodium: Muscular cramps
Potassium: Muscular fatigue
Fill in the blanks with suitable answers.
|Dietary source||Deficiency disease|
|Ascorbic acid||Citrus fruits||Scurvy|
Give abbreviations for the following.
ISI: Indian Standards Institution
FPO: Fruit Process Order
AGMARK: Agricultural Marking
FCI: Food Corporation of India
FSSAI: Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
VII. Assertion and reason type questions.
Direction: In the following question, a statement of a Assertion is given and a corresponding Reason is given just below it.
Of the statements given below, mark the correct answer as:
- If both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion
- If both Assertion and Reason are true but Reason is not the correct explanation of Assertion c. If Assertion is true but Reason is false
- If both Assertion and Reason is false
1) Assertion: Haemoglobin contains iron.
Reason: Iron deficiency leads to anaemia
Ans: a.if both Assertion and Reason are true and the Reason is the correct explanation of Assertion
2) Assertion: AGMARK is a quality control agency
Reason: ISI is a symbol of quality
Ans: d. if both Assertion and Reason is false
Because, AGMARK certifies agricultural and livestock products.
And, ISI is the Bureau of Indian Standards
VIII. Give reasons for the following statements.
1) Salt is added as a preservative in pickles
Ans: Addition of salt is the oldest method of food preserving. By adding salt we can remove the moisture content in the food by the process of osmosis. Due to which the growth of bacteria is prevented and also reduces the activities of microbial enzymes. Hence, to preserve pickles for long time salt is added in them.
2) We should not eat food items beyond the expiry date
Because, there is a limited period for the use of packed foods and that expiry date is also given on them. If we eat those foods beyond their expiry date then some harmful bacteria will be produced in the food which would enters our body and causes to fever, vomiting or diarrhea. Hence, foods beyond expiry date should not be eaten.
3) Deficiency of calcium in diet leads to poor skeletal growth
Due to the deficiency of the calcium in our diet leads to decrease in calcium and calcium is the constituent of bones and enamel of teeth. And hence, deficiency in calcium causes bone deformities and leads to poor skeletal growth.
a) Kwashiorkar from Marasmus
- It is the condition of severe protein deficiency.
- It affects the children between 1-5 years of age, whose diet contains carbohydrates but lack in proteins.
- It is the condition of carbohydrates, fats and proteins deficiency.
- It affects the infants below the age of one year when their diet is poor in carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
b) Macronutrients from Micronutrients
- This are the nutrients which requires to our body in larger amount, hence they are called as macronutrients.
- The macronutrients are commonly carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
- This are the nutrients which requires to our body in smaller amount, hence they are called as micronutrients.
- The micronutrients are commonly vitamins and minerals.
c) Why salt is used as preservative in food?
Ans: Food can be preserved by adding natural and synthetic preservatives.The natural preservatives used are salt, glucose and oil. Addition of salt is the oldest method of food preserving. By adding salt we can remove the moisture content in the food by the process of osmosis. Due to which the growth of bacteria is prevented and also reduces the activities of microbial enzymes. Meat, fish, gooseberry, lemon and raw mangoes are preserved by adding salt. Salt is also used as preservatives in pickles, canned food etc.Hence, to preserve the food for a long time we can add salt or salt is used as natural preservative.
c) What is an adulterant?
Ans: Adulterant is the any material used for the purpose of adulteration. Adulteration is the process of addition or subtraction of any substance to or from food so that the natural composition and quality of the food substance is affected. Some of the adulterated foods are milk and milk products, pulses, coffee powder, tea powder, turmeric powder, saffron, spices, edible oils, meat and poultry products etc.
2) Name any two naturally occurring toxic substances in food.
Ans: The naturally occurring toxic substances in foods are alkaloids, aflatoxin, glycoalkaloids in potatoes, enzyme inhibitors and lectins in soya beans, green legumes and in other legumes also.
3) What factors are required for the absorption of Vitamin D from the food by the body?
Ans: The presence of dietary fat like egg yolk, saturated oil, meat, dairy products, fishes etc. regulates the absorption of vitamin D. Due to this fats the vitamin D will be absorbed. Because, when skin is exposed to sunlight especially early morning, the sun rays falls on the skin and dehydrocholesterol is converted into vitamin D. Hence, vitamin D is called as sunshine vitamin. It improves bone strength by helping body to absorb calcium.
4) Write any one function of the following minerals
It is the constituent of bones and enamel of teeth, clotting of blood and controls muscle contraction.
It maintains fluid balance and involved in neurotransmission.
It is the important component of hemoglobin and carries oxygen from lungs to all the body parts.
It helps in formation of thyroid hormones.
5) Explain any two methods of food preservation.
Ans: Food preservation is the process of prevention of food from decay or spoilage, by storing in a condition fit for the future use. Food is preserved for the following purposes: It increases the shelf life of the food. It retains the colour, texture, flavour and nutritive value. It increases food supply and decrease food wastage also. There are lots of methods used for preserving foods.
In this food preserving process, the food products like meat and fish are exposed to smoke. In this process, the drying action of smoke tends to preserve the food.
Freezing is the method most widely used for preserving foods. In this method, the food is stored below 0°C at which microorganisms cannot grow, chemical reactions are reduced and metabolic reactions are also delayed.
6) What are the effects of consuming adulterated food?
Ans: Adulterant is the any material used for the purpose of adulteration. Adulteration is the process of addition or subtraction of any substance to or from food so that the natural composition and quality of the food substance is affected. Some of the adulterated foods are milk and milk products, pulses, coffee powder, tea powder, turmeric powder, saffron, spices, edible oils, meat and poultry products etc. The consumption of adulterated foods may leads to serious health effects like fever, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disorders, asthma, allergy, neurological disorders, skin allergies, immune suppression, kidney and liver failure, colon cancer and even birth defects.
Answer in detail.
1) How are vitamins useful to us? Tabulate the sources, deficiency diseases and symptoms of fat soluble vitamins
- Vitamins are the vital nutrients, required in minute quantities to perform specific physiological and biochemical functions.
- Fat soluble vitamins are absorbed along with the fats in the food or diet and stored in the body’s fatty tissue and in the liver.
- Vitamin A, D, E and K are the fat soluble vitamins.
|Carrot, papaya, leafy vegetables, fish liver oil, egg yolk, liver, dairy products||Xerophthalmia
|Dryness of Cornea, unable to see in the night, Scaly skin|
|Egg liver, dairy products, fish, synthesized by the skin in sunlight||Rickets in children||Bow legs, defective ribs, development of pigeon chest|
|Whole wheat, meat, vegetable oil, milk||Sterility in rats, reproductive abnormalities||sterility|
(Derivative of Quinone)
|Leafy vegetables, soya beans, milk||Blood clotting is prevented||Excessive bleeding due to delayed blood clotting|
2) Explain the role of food control agencies in India.
ISI, AGMARK, FPO, FCI and other health departments enforce minimum standards for the consumer products.
FCI Food Corporation of India was set up in the year 1965. The food control agencies and their role in food safety is as follows:
ISI (Indian Standards Institution) also known as Beauro of Standards (BIS),
It certifies industrial products like electrical appliances such as switches, wiring cables, water heater, electric motor, kitchen appliances etc.
AGMARK (Agricultural Marking)
It certifies Agricultural and livestock products like cereals, essential oils, pulses, honey, butter etc.
FPO (Fruit Process Order)
It certifies the fruit products like juice, jams, sauce, canned fruits and vegetables, pickles etc.
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India
It is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health through regulation and supervision of food safety
Higher Order Thinking Skills.
1) Look at the picture and answer the question that follows
a) Name the process involved in the given picture.
b) Which diary food is preserved by this process?
c) What is the temperature required for the above process?
Ans: a) The process involved in the given picture is pasteurization.
b) Milk and beverages are preserved by using the process of pasteurization.
c) Pasteurization is the process of heat treatment of a liquid food products.
In this process, milk is boiled to a temperature of 63°C for about 30 minutes and suddenly cooled to destroy the microbes present in the milk.
2) The doctor advices an adolescent girl who is suffering from anaemia to include more of leafy vegetables and dates in her diet. Why so
Ans: In most of the adolescent girls there is deficiency of iron which causes anaemia. Since iron is the important component of the haemoglobin. To recover from the anaemia or to maintain iron level in the blood we have to eat spinach, dates, greens, broccoli, whole cereals, nuts, fish etc. Hence, Dr. Advices to the adolescent girls who are suffering from anaemia to include more leafy vegetables and dates in her diet.
3) Sanjana wants to buy a jam bottle in a grocery shop. What are the things she should observe on the label before purchasing it?
Ans: As Sanjana wants buy a jam bottle in a grocery shop, then following things she should be observe on the label before purchasing it. Products name, Manufacturing date, Expiry date, Ingredients, MRP, Net weight of bottle, Date up to which it is useful, any restriction or advisory note on it.
Here is your Solution of Samacheer Kalvi 9th Science Chapter 21 NUTRITION AND HEALTH
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