Germanium :

Germanium is  transition metal place between silicon and tin . It show hard, brittle , lustrous metal like properties. It is found in earth crust rarely in very small amount  in the form of minerals . The minerals containing germanium is germanite, argyrodite  form germanium from refining process. . it is non toxic in nature .

Discovery : it is discovered in 1886  by scientist Clemens Winkler

Origin of name :. It is formed by latin word ‘ germanial’

Physical properties :

Atomic symbol: atomic symbol of germanium is Ge

Atomic number : atomic number of germanium is 32

In germanium atom 32 proton and 32 electron is present

Atomic weight/ mass: atomic weight of germanium is 72.61Amu

In germanium atom 32 proton and 41 neutron is present

Position : it is place in periodic table at 4th period ( row ) and 13th  column ( group)

Block : it is place in P block

Colour : germanium show greyish white colour

Nature:geranium found in nature at solid state

Boiling point : boiling point of germanium is 2833 0 C

Melting point : melting point of germanium 938 0 C


Germanium show 5 stable isotope

70Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 69.9 Amu

In this isotope 32proton , 32 electron and 38 neutron is present .

It is present 20.5 % in nature .

72Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 71.9 .Amu

In this isotope 32 proton , 32 electron and 40 neutron is present

73 Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 72.9 Amu

In this isotope is 32proton, 32electron and 41neutron is present

It is present 7.7 % in nature

74  Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 73.9Amu

In this isotope 32 proton,32 electron and 42neutron  is present

It is present 36.5% in nature

76Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 75.9% Amu

In this isotope 32 proton, 32 electron and 43  neutron is present

It is present 7.7% in nature .

Germanium show 9 radioactive isotopes .

Chemical properties :

Electronic configuration

Electronic configuration of germanium is [Ar] 3d104S 24P 2

Electronic configuration in concert of shell is 2,8,18, 4

Electronic structure

Valency :germanium show valency 4

In germanium 4 electron is present in valence shell

Atomic radius : atomic radius of germanium is 125 Pm


Germanium is use as catalyst

It is use to make lenses in camera and microscope .

Germanium is use in transistor which is use in electronic device

It is also use to make alloy which is use in phosphorous fluorescent lamp

It is generally use to make fibre optics system.

It is usually use in infra red (IR) spectroscopy.


Question and Answer:

Q1. Define Germanium

Q2. Who discovered Germanium?

Q2. Physical properties of Germanium

Q4. Write Atomic Symbol of Germanium.

Q5. Write the Atomic number of Germanium.

Q6. On which block Germanium element is present?

Q7. What is the color of Germanium?

Q8. What is the Boiling point of Germanium?

Q9. What is the Melting point of Germanium?

Q10. Write the Isotopes of Germanium.

Q11. Show Electronic configuration of Germanium.

Q12. Write Electronic Structure of Germanium.

Q13. What is the Valency of Germanium?

Q14. Write the uses of Germanium element.

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