Germanium is transition metal place between silicon and tin . It show hard, brittle , lustrous metal like properties. It is found in earth crust rarely in very small amount in the form of minerals . The minerals containing germanium is germanite, argyrodite form germanium from refining process. . it is non toxic in nature .
Discovery : it is discovered in 1886 by scientist Clemens Winkler
Origin of name :. It is formed by latin word ‘ germanial’
Physical properties :
Atomic symbol: atomic symbol of germanium is Ge
Atomic number : atomic number of germanium is 32
In germanium atom 32 proton and 32 electron is present
Atomic weight/ mass: atomic weight of germanium is 72.61Amu
In germanium atom 32 proton and 41 neutron is present
Position : it is place in periodic table at 4th period ( row ) and 13th column ( group)
Block : it is place in P block
Colour : germanium show greyish white colour
Nature:geranium found in nature at solid state
Boiling point : boiling point of germanium is 2833 0 C
Melting point : melting point of germanium 938 0 C
Germanium show 5 stable isotope
70Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 69.9 Amu
In this isotope 32proton , 32 electron and 38 neutron is present .
It is present 20.5 % in nature .
72Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 71.9 .Amu
In this isotope 32 proton , 32 electron and 40 neutron is present
73 Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 72.9 Amu
In this isotope is 32proton, 32electron and 41neutron is present
It is present 7.7 % in nature
74 Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 73.9Amu
In this isotope 32 proton,32 electron and 42neutron is present
It is present 36.5% in nature
76Ge: atomic weight of this isotope is 75.9% Amu
In this isotope 32 proton, 32 electron and 43 neutron is present
It is present 7.7% in nature .
Germanium show 9 radioactive isotopes .
Chemical properties :
Electronic configuration of germanium is [Ar] 3d104S 24P 2
Electronic configuration in concert of shell is 2,8,18, 4
Valency :germanium show valency 4
In germanium 4 electron is present in valence shell
Atomic radius : atomic radius of germanium is 125 Pm
Germanium is use as catalyst
It is use to make lenses in camera and microscope .
Germanium is use in transistor which is use in electronic device
It is also use to make alloy which is use in phosphorous fluorescent lamp
It is generally use to make fibre optics system.
It is usually use in infra red (IR) spectroscopy.
Question and Answer:
Q1. Define Germanium
Q2. Who discovered Germanium?
Q2. Physical properties of Germanium
Q4. Write Atomic Symbol of Germanium.
Q5. Write the Atomic number of Germanium.
Q6. On which block Germanium element is present?
Q7. What is the color of Germanium?
Q8. What is the Boiling point of Germanium?
Q9. What is the Melting point of Germanium?
Q10. Write the Isotopes of Germanium.
Q11. Show Electronic configuration of Germanium.
Q12. Write Electronic Structure of Germanium.
Q13. What is the Valency of Germanium?
Q14. Write the uses of Germanium element.