NCERT Solutions Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 Directing
NCERT Solutions Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 Directing: National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) Class 12 Business Studies Chapter 7 Solutions – Directing.
Very Short Answer Type
1.) What is informal communication?
Answer- Informal communications are usually in the form of rumours, whispers, that exst within or outside the organisation between employees.
2.) Which style of leadership does not believe in use of power unless it is absolutely essential?
Answer- The type of leadership that does not believe in the use of power unless it is absolutely essential is Laissez Faire or Free rein Leader.
3.) . Which element in the communication process involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc.?
Answer- The element in the communication process that involves converting the message into words, symbols, gestures etc is Encoding.
4.) . The workers always try to show their inability when any new work is given to them. They are always unwilling to take up any kind of work. Due to sudden rise in demand a firm wants to meet excess orders. The supervisor is finding it difficult to cope up with the situation. State the element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem.
Answer- The element of directing that can help the supervisor in handling the problem is Motivation.
Short Answer Type
1.) What are semantic barriers of communication?
Answer- Semantic barriers of Communication refers to problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Such barriers result on account of use of wrong words, faulty translations, different interpretations, etc.
2.) . Explain the process of Communication with the help of a diagram.
Answer- The communication process is explained below:
(i) Sender: Sender means person who conveys his thoughts or ideas to the receiver. The sender represents source of communication.
(ii) Message: It is the content of ideas, feelings, suggestions, order, etc, intended to be communicated.
(iii) Encoding: It is the process of converting the message into communication symbols like words , gestures etc.
(iv) Media: It is the path through which encoded message is transmitted to receiver. The channel may be in written form, face to face, phone call, Internet etc.
(v) Decoding: It is the process of converting encoded symbols of the sender.
(vi) Receiver: The person who receives communication of the sender.
(vii) Feedback: It includes all those actions of receiver indicating that he has
received and understood message of sender.
(viii) Noise: Noise means some obstruction or hindrance to communication.
For diagram refer to page 194 of book(Communication process)
3.) State the different networks of grapevine communications.
Answer- The various types of grapevine network of communication are as follows:
i.) Single strand network: In single strand network, each person communicates to the other in sequence.
ii.) Gossip network: In gossip network, each person communicates with all on non-selective basis.
iii.) Probability Network : In probability network, the individual communicates randomly with other individual.
iv.) Cluster Network : In cluster, the individual communicates with only those people whom he trusts.
4.) . Explain any three principles of Directing.
Answer- The three principles of Directing are as follows:
i.) Maximum individual contribution: This principle emphasises that directing techniques must help every individual in the organisation to contribute to his maximum potential for achievement of organisational objectives.
ii.) Unity of Command: This principle insists that a person in the organisation should receive instructions from one superior only. If instructions are received from more than one, it creates confusion, conflict and disorder in the organisation.
iii) ) Managerial communication: Effective managerial communication across all the levels in the organisation makes direction effective. Directing should convey clear instructions to create total understanding to subordinates.
5.) In an organisation, one of the departmental manager is inflexible and once he takes a decision, he does not like to be contradicted. As a result, employees always feel they are under stress and they take least initiative and fear to express their opinions and problems before the manager. What is the problem in the way authority is being used by the manager?
Answer- The Departmental manager is following Authoritarian Style of Leadership which brings a sense of lack of initiative and motivation and belongingness among employees. While directing the subordinates, managers should exercise good leadership as it can influence the subordinates positively without causing dissatisfaction among them.
6.) A reputed hostel, GyanPradan provides medical aid and free education to children of its employees. Which incentive is being highlighted here? State its category and name any two more incentives of the same category.
Answer- The type of incentive highlighted here in this case is Financial incentive. The category of financial incentive discussed here is Perquisites.
Two more types of Financial incentives are as follows :
i) Productivity linked wage incentives: Several wage incentive plans aims at linking payment of wages to increase in productivity at individual or group level.
ii) Bonus: Bonus is an incentive offered over and above the wages/ salary to the employees.
Long Answer Type
1.) Discuss Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory of motivation.
Answer- Since motivation is highly complex, many researchers have studied about motivation from several dimensions and developed some theories.
Abraham Maslow , an well known psychologist in 1943 outlined the elements of an overall theory of Motivation . His theory was based on human needs as follows:
i) Basic Physiological Needs : these needs are primary needs like hunger ,thrust etc . In organisational context , basic salary helps to satisfy these needs.
ii) Safety needs : These needs provides protection from physical and emotional harm like – job security , income stability etc.
iii) Affiliation needs : These needs refers to affection , sense of belongingness etc.
iv) Esteem needs : These needs includes factors like – self respect , recognition , attention etc.
v) Self Actualisation Needs : These are the highest levels of needs which involves individual’s growth and development and is placed at the top of the hierarchy .
Draw the diagram from page 184(Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory).
2.) What are the common barriers to effective communication?
Answer-The various barriers to communication are as follows:
i) Semantic barriers : Semantic barriers of Communication refers to problems and obstructions in the process of encoding and decoding of message into words or impressions. Some of them are discussed as follows
a) Symbols with different meanings: A word may have several meanings.
Receiver has to perceive one such meaning for the word used by communicator.
b) Faulty translations: If the translator is not proficient with both the languages, mistakes may creep in causing different meanings to the communication.
ii) ii)Psychological barriers: Emotional or psychological factors acts as barriers to communicators. Some of these are discussed as follows:
a) Premature evaluation: Some times people evaluate the meaning of message before the sender completes his message. Such premature evaluation may be due to pre-conceived notions or prejudices against the communication.
b) Lack of attention: The preoccupied mind of receiver and the resultant non-listening of message acts as a major psychological barrier.
iii) Organisational barriers: The factors related to organisation structure, authority relationships, rules and regulations may, sometimes, act as barriers to effective communication. Some of these are discussed below :
a) Organisational policy: If the organisational policy, explicit or implicit, is not supportive to free flow of communication, it may hamper effectiveness of communications.
b) ) Rules and regulations: Rigid rules and cumbersome procedures may be a hurdle to communication. Similarly, communications through prescribed channel may result in delays.
iv) Personal barriers: The personal factors of both sender and receiver may exert influence on effective communication. Some of the personal barriers of superiors and subordinates are mentioned below:
a) ) Fear of challenge to authority: If a superior perceives that a particular communication may adversely affect his authority, he or she may withhold or suppress such communication.
b) Lack of confidence of superior on his subordinates: If superiors do not have confidence on the competency of their subordinates, they may not seek their advice or opinions.
Some of the measures to overcome barriers to communication are as follows :
i) Clarify the ideas before communication: The problem to be communicated to subordinates should be clear in all its perspective to the executive himself.
ii) Communicate according to the needs of receiver: Manager should adjust his communication according to the education and understanding levels of subordinates.
3.) Explain different financial and non-financial incentives used to motivate employees of a company?
Answer-The various types of Financial incentives are as follows :
i) ) Productivity linked wage incentives: Several wage incentive plans aims at linking payment of wages to increase in productivity at individual or group level.
ii) Bonus: Bonus is an incentive offered over and above the wages/ salary to the employees.
iii) Retirement Benefits: Several retirement benefits such as provident fund, pension, and gratuity provide financial security to employees after their retirement.
The various types of non – financial incentives are as follows:
i) Status: In the organisational context, status means ranking of positions in the organisation. The authority, responsibility, rewards, recognition, perquisites and prestige of job indicate the status given to a person holding a managerial position.
ii) Career Advancement Opportunity: Every individual wants to grow to the higher level in the organisation. Managers should provide opportunity to employees to improve their skills and be promoted to the higher level jobs.
4.) In an organisation all the employees take things easy and are free to approach anyone for minor queries and problems. This has resulted in everyone talking to each other and thus resulting in inefficiency in the office. It has also resulted in loss of secrecy and confidential information being leaked out. What system do you think the manager should adopt to improve communication?
Answer- The manager should insist in following formal communication techniques in the organisation to overcome these problems. It is suggested because Formal communication flows through official channels designed in the organisation chart. This communication may take place between a superior and subordinate, a subordinate and superior or among same cadre employees or managers.
Formal communication may be further classified as – Vertical and Horizontal.
i) Vertical communication flows vertically, i.e., upwards or downwards through formal channels. Upward communications refer to flow of communication from subordinate to superior whereas downward communication indicates communication from a superior to subordinates. For eg- The examples of upward communication are – application for grant of leave, submission of progress report, request for grants, etc. Similarly, the examples of downward communication include – sending notice to employees to attend a meeting,
ii) Horizontal or lateral communication takes place between one division and another. For example, a production manager may contact marketing manager to discuss about schedule of product delivery, product design, quality, etc.