Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solution Chapter 3 – Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues
Balbharati Maharashtra Board Class 12 Political Science Solution Chapter 3: Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues. Marathi or English Medium Students of Class 12 get here Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues full Exercise Solution.
|Maharashtra Class 12|
Key Concepts and Issues since 1991: Humanitarian Issues
Q.1) (A) Choose the correct alternative and complete the following statements.
1.) The initial approach to women’s issues in India can be described as a welfare approach.
2.) In 1972, the UN Conference on human environment was held in Stockholm.
(B) Identify the incorrect pair in every set, correct it and rewrite.
1.) (i) 1960’s – Welfare approach to women’s issues.
(ii) 1970’s – Development approach to women’s issues
(iii) 1990’s – Educational approach to women’s issues
Ans: The third pair, that says that the era of 1990s had an educational approach to women issues is an incorrect pair because the 1990s focused on the empowerment of women, and keeping in mind that their empowerment was necessary which could be possible by letting them be a part of the government’s planning and implementation, the National Commission for Women was set up in 1990 which provided the reservation of seats for women in local and Municipal government bodies.
2.) (i) Lack of food, water etc. – Traditional perception of poverty
(ii) Lack of values, community files – Non-Traditional approach of development
(iii) Lack of economic growth – Traditional approach of development
Ans: Lack of values and community files is not a non-traditional approach of development but the focus on both material and non material aspects of poverty is what we consider as the non-traditional approach of development. Basically, when we talk about a non-traditional approach of development, we are talking about a sustainable form of development where the idea is all about the development in the participation level of the citizens in the making of the government and each and every section has their contribution in the decision making process.
(C) Find the odd word in the given set.
1.) National policy for empowerment of women, protection of women from domestic violence act, Muslim women (protection and right on marriage) Act, the sexual harassment at workplace
(prohibition prevention and redressal) Act
Ans: Sexual Harrassment At Workplace is an odd word because the full name of the act is Sexual Harassament of Women at Workplace, which is an entirely different act made for the protection of women at workplace.
2.) Climate change, waste management, water scarcity, deforestation
Ans: Waste management, although a grave issue, is an odd word here because it is not mixed with tackling natural issues like climate change, water scarcity and deforestation, which are environmental issues and they are tackled by forest ministries.
Q.2 State whether the following statements are true or false with reason.
(1) Planning Commission was created to promote agriculture in India.
Ans: False. It was created for the overall development of the country via the five year plans, focusing on both India’s economic and social development. It was not only an agriculture focused commission.
(2) National Commision for Women was set up to protect rights for women in India. Ans: True. The National Commission for Women was set up with full constitutional recognition to help the women get their rightful place as legal citizens in being a part of the decision making and policy implementation process of the government by reserving their seats in the Municipal and Local governments.
Q.3 Explain the correlation between the following.
(1) Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development
(2) Poverty and Development
- Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development: Both the concepts are highly related with each other. Let’s first understand what both the terms mean. Women empowerment talks about improving the age-old backward positions of women and giving their rightful place in the society, by protecting their rights and helping them get empowered with job opportunities, educational opportunities, helping them secure a place in the government and sports and every field where they can rise and shine. Sustainable development, on the other hand, is the correct way of using resources in a manner that the future generations do find a lack of resources for them. So when we talk about the correlation between women empowerment and sustainable development, we’re talking about a combined educated class of citizens, where as par with men, even women are educated about the resources and the knowledge of using them in a sustainable manner, and using their own creative insight into problems solving methods of maintaining a sustainable development.
- Poverty and Development: Poverty and development are very much correlated. Poverty is when an individual has no access to adequate food, shelter, clothing and an income to sustain his/her life. Development is when something or someone lifts up from its initial position and earns a better life or position. Poverty can be alleviated when development takes place, and it would take place when a country stands for the major evils of the country that hinders its development, and that is, poverty. Development’s main goal is to work on eliminating poverty and to raise the country by making ample opportunities for everyone’s life sustenance and to help them maintain a standard of living. That makes development and poverty correlated, because poverty can be alleviated only with the help of development policies.
Q.5 Answer the following question in detail with help of given points.
Explain conditions of women in India. (a) Economic inequality (b) trafficking and exploitation © Literacy rate (d) Political representation
Ans: Women in India, if taken historically or if understood by the epics of India, had a far superior place than what they have today, or what they had to do to have a position that they have today. Indian women have to come to their position of equality in the society by fighting for their rights along with men who fought for them, their educational rights, their voting rights and even their basic rights. Infact, Indian women never had to fight for their voting rights when India became independent. Today, the government of India is taking a lot of measures to help women empower and earn a name for themselves via education, employment and by reserving their seats in the society. Even today, women are fighting for economic inequality with a wide gap between pay scale between men and women. Women also face dangers of being trafficked and sold into prostitution. Today, women are proving themselves in every field, and with this the literacy rate is increasing but even today, in many villages, many girls are not allowed to go to school or are dropped out of schools. Governments have taken great steps to reserve the seats of women in local and municipal governments to help women have an equal share in the lawmaking and decision making process of the government.
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