# Math Symbols

## Mathematical Symbols: Symbols, Numbers, and Formulas

For students, mathematics symbols have a great deal of value. Students need to learn them so that they can solve more complex math equations. There are some symbols like Roman numerals, fractions, pi, and division that they need to understand.

And, reading this article can be a great initiative for learners. Not even mathematics requires these symbols, but also they are useful in science subjects. You all must have noticed that the whole of mathematics is made up of symbols. Numbers are also part of it. In the field of mathematics, math symbols are very useful. Students can use them for different purposes in this subject. Mathematicians use these symbols to represent ideas, concepts, and numbers. They sometimes use it as a reference for different types of equations. The extraction of maximum values from calculations, equations, and formulae can be done with the help of math symbols. To create a logical sequence, the symbols are required for the physical events representation. A predefined value can also be denoted by symbols. Students use math symbols to simplify calculations. While solving any mathematical problem, students should feel confident. By using various symbols like greater than sign, parenthesis, brackets, equal signs and many more can help you to be comfortable when making calculations. They are the best way to describe a standard or an idea. Around the world, these symbols may be used in languages because every mathematician needs to understand them equally.

### Some Ways to Remember Mathematical Symbols

Before studying math symbols, there are few thing you need to keep in the mind. We have listed here some points that you must remember when understanding symbols.

• Various symbols are there in mathematics nearly above 10,000. But, some of them we rarely use. So you need to focus on the math symbols that have been frequently used.
• In maths, it is important to understand mathematical expressions. You can make it easier by using symbols to represent certain information.
• Further, you should use them constantly in the subject. You can also use them to refer to non-varying objects.

math symbols for class 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, UPSC, SSC, LIC, JEE, JEE Advance, NEET, CLAT aspirants.

### Math Symbols List

All symbols that are useful in mathematics are mentioned in this place. Mathematical symbols are required, especially for calculations and formulas. To understand the language of mathematics, candidates need to learn these symbols. If you are constantly in contact with maths then you can bookmark this page or you can save each table to refer to frequently.

#### Basic Math Symbol

On this page, we have mentioned basic math symbols which are the foundation of mathematics. Those who want to express mathematical ideas will do that with the help of basic mathematical symbols. Also, there is a relationship between the symbol and the value. Arithmetic is incomplete without these symbols if we say them in easy words. To explain a few concepts and ideas clearly, symbols are required. Below, the mathematical symbols with symbol names and its definition are given in the table. Once you take a look at that you will understand how to use math symbols.

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning = equals sign equality ≠ not equal sign inequality ≈ approximately equal approximation > strict inequality greater than < strict inequality less than ≥ inequality greater than or equal to ≤ inequality less than or equal to ( ) parentheses calculate expression inside first [ ] brackets calculate expression inside first + plus sign addition − minus sign subtraction ± plus – minus both plus and minus operations ± minus – plus both minus and plus operations * asterisk multiplication × times sign multiplication ⋅ multiplication dot multiplication ÷ division sign / obelus division / division slash division — horizontal line division / fraction mod modulo remainder calculation . period decimal point, decimal separator ab; power exponent a^b caret exponent √a square root √⋅√a =a 3√a cube root 3√a⋅3√a⋅3√a⋅& =a 4√a fourth root 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a ⋅ 4√a =a n√a n-th root (radical) % percent 1%=1/100 ‰ per-mile 1‰=1/1000=0.1% ppm per-million 1ppm=1/1000000 ppb per-billion 1ppb=1/1000000000 ppt per-trillion 1ppt=10&minussup12;

#### Geometry Symbols

In mathematics, the geometry symbols are also there. It is compulsory for the students to know geometry symbols as they are helping to solve problems of mathematics. Here, you can view them to complete the studies of math subject.

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning ∠ formed by two rays ∠ABC=30° measured angle spherical angle ∟ right angle =90° ° degree 1 turn=360° deg degree 1 turn=360deg ′ prime arcminute, 1°=60′ ″ double prime arcsecond, 1′=60″ line infinite line AB line segment line from point A to point B ray line that start from point A ⊥ perpendicular perpendicular lines (90° angle) ∥ parallel parallel lines ≅ congruent to equivalence of geometric shapes and size ∼ similarity same shapes, not same size Δ triangle triangle shape ∣x−y∣ distance distance between points x and y π pi constant π=3.141592654… is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle rad radians radians angle unit grad gradians ∕ gons grads angle unit g gradians ∕ gons grads angle unit

#### Algebra Symbols

A mathematical component of symbols and rules is none other than algebra. Like sentences are represented by the coordination of certain words. In the same way, mathematics is represented by the coordination of variables. This description of mathematics is present in algebra. The Non-fixed values representing symbols are also there in algebra. These symbols are known as variables.

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning χ x variable unknown value to find ≡ equivalence identical to ≜ equal by definition equal by definition ≔ equal by definition equal by definition ∽ approximately equal weak approximation ≈ approximately equal approximation ∝ proportional to proportional to ∞ lemniscate infinity symbol ≪ much less than much less than ⁽ ⁾ much grataer than much grataer than ⁽ ⁾ parentheses calculate expression inside first [ ] brackets calculate expression inside first { } braces set ⌊ χ ⌋ floor brackets rounds number to lower integer ⌈ χ ⌉ ceiling brackets rounds number to upper integer χ! exclamation mark factorial |χ| vertical bars absolute value Af(χ) function of x maps values of x to f(x) (f°g) function composition (f°g)(x)=f(g(x)) (a,b) open interval (a,b)={ x | a < x < b } [a,b] closed interval [a,b]={x | a≤ x ≤b } Δ delta change / difference Δ discriminant Δ=b²-4ac ∑ sigma summation – sum of all values in range of series ∑∑ sigma double summation ∏ capital pi product – product of all values in range of series e e constant / Euler’s number e = 2.718281828… γ Euler-Mascheroni constant γ= 0.5772156649… φ golden ratio golden ratio constant π pi constant π = 3.141592654… It is the ratio between the circumference and diameter of a circle

#### Linear Algebra Symbols

Linear algebra symbols are also included in the world of mathematics. In higher standards, the following symbols are most useful. All the linear algebra symbols are listed here for students. These symbols are very helpful for those having mathematics subjects in their studies.

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning · dot scalar product × cross vector product A⊗B tensor product tensor product of A and B inner product [ ] brackets matrix of numbers | A | determinant determinant of matrix A det(A) determinant determinant of matrix A ∥ x ∥ double vertical bars norm AT transpose matrix transpose A† Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose A* Hermitian matrix matrix conjugate transpose A-1 inverse matrix AA-1=/ rank(A) matrix rank rank of matrix A dim(U) dimension dimension of matrix A

#### Probability and Statistics Symbols

In mathematics, a part of probability and statistics symbols are there. For now, we assume that some of you have already studied them. Still, you can use the below table to revise them. If you have not studied the probability statistics symbol, then check out the following list.

 Symbol Symbol Name Meaning P(A) probability function probability of event A P(A ∩ B) probability of events intersection probability that of events A and B P(A ∪ B) probability of events union probability that of events A or B P(A | B) conditional probability function probability of event A given event B occured f( X ) probability density function (pdf) P( a ≤ x ≤ b ) =∫f( X ) dx F( X ) cumulative distribution function (cdf) F( X ) =P( X ≤ x) μ population mean mean of population values E ( X ) expectation value expected value of random variable X E ( X | Y ) conditional expectation expected value of random variable X given Y var( X ) variance variance of random variable X σ2 variance variance of population values std( X ) standard deviation standard deviation of random variable X σx standard deviation standard deviation value of random variable X median middle value of random variable x cov( X,Y ) covariance covariance of random variables X and Y corr( X,Y ) correlation correlation of random variables X and Y cov( X,Y ) covariance covariance of random variables X and Y corr( X,Y ) correlation correlation of random variables X and Y ρ x,y correlation correlation of random variables X and Y ∑ summation summation – sum of all values in range of series ∑∑ double summation double summation Mo mode value that occurs most frequently in population MR mid-range MR =( xmax+xmin)/2 Md sample median half the population is below this value Q1 lower / first quartile 25 % of population are below this value Q2 median / second quartile 50% of population are below this value = median of samples Q3 upper / third quartile 75% of population are below this value x sample mean average / arithmetic mean s2 sample variance population samples variance estimator s sample standard deviation population samples standard deviation estimator Zx standard score Zx=(x-x)/ Sx X ~ distribution of X distribution of random variable X X ~ distribution of X distribution of random variable X N(μσ2) normal distribution gaussian distribution U( a,b ) uniform distribution equal probability in range a,b exp(λ) exponential distribution f(x)=λe-λx x≥0 gamma(c, λ) gamma distribution f(x)=λ c xc-1 e-λx / Γ ( c ) x≥0 χ2(k) chi-square distribution f(x)=xk/2-1 e-x/2 / ( 2k/2Γ )(k/2) ) F (k1,k2) F distribution Bin( n,p ) binomial distribution F(k) = nCk pk(1-p)n-k Poisson( λ ) Poisson distribution F(k) = λke-λ / k ! Geom( p ) geometric distribution F(k) = p( 1-p)k HG( N ,K ,n ) hyper-geometric distribution Bern( p ) Bernoulli distribution

#### Combinatorics Symbols

Combinatorics refers to accounting in mathematics. You can count the number of orders with the help of combinatorics. Here, we have provided combinatorics symbols in the table.

#### Set Theory Symbols

The study related to collections of objects, the relationship between them and their properties are introduced in the branch of mathematics called set theory. Students need to learn set theory symbols to know about sets and their properties. Sir Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor is the one who developed set theory first. He was a German mathematician. In order to talk about collections of objects, it has been developed by the mathematician. In this part, a list of set theory symbols is mentioned.

#### Logic Symbols

To express rational thoughts and common patterns of reasoning, logic symbols are used in mathematics. Individuals use these symbols to show highly complex logical relationships between statements. We have provided symbol, symbol name, and their meaning for logic symbols here. We want aware all the students so that they will be able to use different symbols in the context. Below, you will have these symbols specifically arranged in the table.

#### Calculus & Analysis Symbols

A lot of symbols and equations are included in this unique branch of mathematics. If you are newly learning then it might be confusing for you. Some of the calculus and analysis symbols of mathematics are mentioned here. When studying math subject, these may be helpful for you.

#### Numeral Symbols

Western Arabic, Hebrew, and Roman numeral symbols are listed in this place.

#### Greek Alphabet Letters

In general, many people including mathematicians represent consistency, functions, flexibility, and others with the help of Greek letters. Here, we have listed the Greek symbols which are part of maths. You can use them in the work as well as in subject studies.

 Upper Case Letter Lower Case Letter Greek Letter Name English Equivalent Letter Name Pronounce Α α Alpha a al-fa Β β Beta b be-ta Γ γ Gamma g ga-ma Δ δ Delta d del-ta Ε ε Epsilon e ep-si-lon Ζ ζ Zeta z Ze-ta Η η Eta h eh-ta Θ θ Theta th te-ta Ι ι Iota i io-ta Κ κ Kappa k ka-pa Λ λ Lambda l lam-da Μ μ Mu m m-yoo Μ μ Mu m m-yoo Ν ν Nu n noo Ν ν Nu n noo Ξ ξ Xi x x-ee Ο ο Omicron o o-mee-c-ron Π π Pi p pa-yee Ρ ρ Rho r row Σ σ Sigma s sig-ma Τ τ Tau t ta-oo Υ υ Upsilon u oo-psi-lon Φ φ Phi ph f-ee Χ χ Chi ch kh-ee Ψ ψ Psi ps p-see Ω ω Omega o o-me-ga

#### Roman Numerals

Romans are the people who use Roman numerals as numerical notation. Different combinations are created with the help of these numbers to denote Roman numerals. Like V is the Roman numeral for and IV is for 4. In many areas, we do use these numerals. For example, class I, Class II and Class X use Roman numerals and it has wide applications here.  Here, a chart of Roman numerals is provided for the students. The Roman numeral symbols for 1 to 10,00,000 are given below. This will help you to learn these numerals in detail.

 Numeral Roman Number 1 I 2 II 3 III 4 IV 5 V 6 VI 7 VII 8 VIII 9 IX 10 X 11 XI 12 XII 13 XIII 14 XIV 15 XV 16 XVI 17 XVII 18 XVIII 19 XIX 20 XX 21 XXI 22 XXII 23 XXIII 24 XXIV 25 XXV 26 XXVI 27 XXVII 28 XXVIII 29 XXIX 30 XXX 31 XXXI 32 XXXII 33 XXXIII 34 XXXIV 35 XXXV 36 XXXVI 37 XXXVII 38 XXXVIII 39 XXXIX 40 XL 41 XLI 42 XLII 43 XLIII 44 XLIV 45 XLV 46 XLVI 47 XLVII 48 XLVIII 49 XLIX 50 L

In Roman Numeral,

L means 50

C means 100

D means 500

M means 1000

### Mathematical symbols: why are they important?

• You can denote many quantities with the help of mathematical symbols.
• It is possible to make the reference easy with the help of these symbols.
• For every individuals the symbols can break the language barrier. It is applicable world-wide.
• Also, it is easy to establish a relationship between two different quantities.
• You can identify the type of operation with the help of symbols.

### Mathematics on Respective Math Symbols

Symbol ‘=’

Example:

x + 5 = 8

Or, x = 8 – 5 = 3

y + 4 = 7

Or, x = 7 – 4 = 3

∴ x = y = 3

Symbol ‘≠’

Example:

x + 6 = 8

Or, x = 2

y + 8 = 20

Or, y = 12

∴ x ≠ y

Symbol ‘≈’

Example:

x + 6.50 = 8.75

Or, x = 8.75 – 6.50 = 2.25

∴ x ≈ 2

If decimal value greater than 0.5 then round up to the nearest whole number and vice verse.

Symbol ‘>’

Example:

x2 – 5x + 6 = 0

Or, x2 – 2x – 3x + 6 = 0

Or, x (x – 2) (x – 3) = 0

∴ Either, x – 2 = 0

Or, x = 2

Or, x – 3 = 0

Or, x = 3

y2 – 11y + 30 = 0

Or, y2 – 5xy – 6y + 30 = 0

Or, y (y – 5) – 6 (y – 5) = 0

Or, (y – 5) (y – 6) = 0

Either, y – 5 = 0 or, y – 6 = 0

Or, y = 5 or, y = 6

∴ x = 7.2, 3 and y = 5, 6

∴ y > x (y greater than x)

Symbol ‘<’

Example:

Similarly, above sum, represents.

x < y (x less than y)

Symbol ‘≥’

Example:

x2 – 5x + 6 = 0

Or, x2 – 2x – 3x + 6 = 0

Or, x (x – 2) – 3 (x – 2) = 0

Or, (x – 2) (x – 3) = 0

∴ Either, x = 2 or, x = 3

y2 – 7y + 12 = 0

Or, y2 – 4y – 3y – 12 = 0

Or, y (y – 4) – 3 (y – 4) = 0

Or, (y – 4) (y – 3) =

Either y = 4, or, y = 3

∴ x = 2, 3 & y = 4, 3

∴ y ≥ x (y is greater or equal to x).

Symbol ‘≤’

Example:

Similarly on the above sum,

x = 2, 3 & y = 4, 3

∴ x ≤ y (x is good less or equal to y)

Symbol ‘( )’

Example:

5 (6 ÷ 3) + 4 = x

∴ x = 5 of 2 + 4

Or, x = 10 + 4 = 14

Following BODMAS rule —- calculation is done first in the above equation.

Symbol ‘[  ]’

Example:

5 [4 + (6 ÷ 2)] + 10 = x

Or, x = 5 [4 + 3] + 10

Or, x = 5 of 7 + 10

Or, x = 35 + 10 = 45

Here, the less bracket calculation is done before the third brackets according to brackets rule.

Symbol ‘+’

Example:

2 + 3 = 5 [Addition Rule]

Symbol ‘-’

Example:

3 – 2 = 1 [substruction Rule]

Symbol ‘±’

Example:

√25 = ± 5

∵ + 5x + 5 = 25 also,

– 5x – 5 = 25

When two minus are multiplied the overall value is always positive.

∴ The ‘±’ sign is used for any sq root value.

Symbol ‘

Example:

Similar to ‘±’ rule.

Symbol ‘×’

Example:

5 × 2 = 10 [Multiplication rule]

Or, 5 + 5 = 10 [Here, 5 is added 2 times as it is multiplied by 2]

Symbol ‘.’

Example:

5.2 = 10

Or, 5×2 = 10 [Same as multiplication]

Symbol ‘÷’

Example:

10 ÷ 5 = 2

Division rule

Symbol ‘/’

Example:

10/5 = [Same as division]

Symbol ‘mod’

Example:

100 ÷ 11

Remainder

∴ 100 mod 11 is 1.

Mod represent the remainder of one number divided by another.

Symbol ‘:’

Example:

5.25 + 6.75 = 8 (5 + 6) : (25 + 75)

= 11 + 1.00

= 12.00

∵ represent decimal value.

Symbol ‘a5

Example:

52 = 25 means. 5 × 5 = 25

Here, 5 is multiplied 7 times.

Since exponent value is 2.

Similarly 53 = 5 × 5 × 5 = 125

Symbol ‘a^b’

Example:

5^2 = 5×5 = 25

Also, represent exponent as the previous example.

Symbol ‘√a’

Example:

√25 = ± 5, as ‘√’ represents — root

So, LCM of 25 is 5, 5

∴ The LCM common value is the sq root.

Symbol ‘∛a

Example:

∛125 = 5 as ‘∛’ represents Cube root.

So, LCM of 125 is 5, 5, 5

3 common multiplies are cube root.

Symbol ‘

Example:

∜16 = 2

As 2×2×2×2 = 16

∴ LCM of 16 is 2, 2, 2, 2

∴ Similar to cube root

Symbol ‘n√

Example:

n√64 =? to find n th root.

We need LCM of the number

64

∴ 64 = 2×2×2×2×2×2

∴ 6 common multiple of 2 becomes 64

∴ 6√64 = 2

Symbol ‘%

Example:

% —- out of 100 part —- much is a number for eg.

x % of 100 = 25

Or, x/100 × 100 = 25

Or, x = 25

∴ 25% of 100 = 25

Similarly, x % of 200 = 40

Or, x/100 × 200 = 40

Or, 2x = 40

Or, x = 20

∴ 20% of 200 = 40

Similar to 1000th part e.g.

Symbol ‘%.

Example:

Similar to 1000th part e.g.

x %. of 5000 = 100

Or, x/1000 × 5000 = 100

Or, 5x = 100

Or, x = 20

∴ 20%. of 5000 = 100

Symbol ‘ppm

Example:

‘ppm’ means per million or per 10 laks

∴ x ppm of 5000000 = 1000

Or, x/1000000 × 5000000 = 1000

Or, 5x = 1000

Or, x = 200

∴ 200 ppm of 5000000 = 1000

Symbol ‘ppb

Example:

‘ppb’ means per billion or per 10 crore.

x ppb of 500000000 = 1000

Or, x/100000000 × 500000000 = 1000

Or, x = 20

∴ 200 ppb of 500000000 = 1000

Symbol ‘ppt

Example:

‘ppt’ represents per trillion or per lakh crore

∴ x ppt 5 × 10 = 1000

Or, x/10 × 5 × 10 = 1000

Or, x = 200

∴ 200 ppt of 5 × 10 = 1000

∴ 1012 represents the no. of zeroes after 5.

### Frequently Asked questions on Math Symbols

What is meant by U in mathematics?

In math, U is represented in a situation where two sets have a union. The symbol U is the union of the values present in each set. You can learn more about the U by reading the above article.

How to improve children’s memory of symbols?

Understanding mathematical symbols is not possible with the direct instructional method. There are online learning platforms, video tools, and games that can help you with symbol learning.

What is the math symbol for the area of a circle?

To find the area of a circle, you can use Pi as a math symbol.

What are the basic math symbols and the total number of mathematical symbols?

Some of the basic math symbols are +, =, ±, *. And ˗. For the whole list of mathematical symbols, you check out the above article. In maths, more than 10,000 symbols are there.

What are the common arithmetic math symbols?

Here, students can view a list of common arithmetic and math symbols:

• Plus Sign + (Useful in Addition)
• Minus Sign – (Useful in Subtraction)
• Multiplication * or × (Useful in Multiplication)
• Division ÷ or Slash Sign / (Useful in Division)

Also See: