Thermal Power Plant

Thermal power plant generate electrical energy from the combustion of coal and petroleum. Consider the world without electricity. Electricity is a fourth need of mankind. In todays life we cannot imagine the world without electricity. Daily requirement of electricity in India is  approximately few billions unit. So this huge requirement of electricity led to increase the number of power stations.Power station converts chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy. Thermal power station works on fossil fuel. We can easily transport electrical energy than fuel.The transport of fuel is more costly therefore most of the power station are near to the mines of coal. Thermal power plants are classified on the basis of fuel and as

  1. Petroleum
  2. Coal
  3. Natural gas
  4. Nuclear
  5. Geothermal
  6. Solar thermal

We can understand the working of power station with the help of a small activity.

  • Take a rubber ball.
  • Make three cuts into it at the horizontal circumference.
  • Take 3 light weight metal sheet same as blades of fan.
  • Fix that metal sheets into the cuts of balls.
  • Fix the ball at the pivot of an excel axle. Axle allowto rotate it freely.
  • Connect dynamo to the axle. Dynamo converts this mechanical energy into electrical energy.
  • Connect small LED to this dynamo.LED is used as an indicator for the generation of electric current.
  • Arrange for the steam in the cooker to fall on the blades of fan.
  • Arrange the assembly as shown in figure.

Principle of thermal power station.

Thermal Power station is basedon the principal-

  1. It converts chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy.
  2. Chemical energy of fossil fuel is used to rotate dynamo.
  3. Working of dynamo is based on electromagnetic induction.

Working of power station:

Fossil fuel is use as a source of energy in power station.Combustion of fuel produces heat.This heat energy is used for heating water. At certain temperature water is convert into steam. Steam contain high energy. Didyou observe pressure in pressure cooker? If piston of cooker is not fix properly then it  will make explosion. Railways also run on this steam so this steam is used to rotate the turbines. Turbines workon the principle of electromagnetic induction. If  there is a relative motion between magnet and the coil of insulated copper wire it produces voltage.

Advantages of thermal power plant:

  1. Construction and mechanism of thermal power plant is easy.
  2. Coal is used as fuelin thermal power plant and cool is cheap then other fossil fuel.

Disadvantages of thermal power plant:

  1. Thermal power plant requires fuel as coal and petroleum. We know that sources of coal are Limited.
  2. Thermal power plant makes air pollution. Combustion of coal produces smoke in a air  lead to increase in air pollution.
  3. Thermal power plant require much amount of water to produce steam.
  4. Thermal power plant must be built near to the mines because transport of fuel is much expensive.
  5. Building and maintenance cost of thermal power plant is expensive.

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