Telangana SCERT Solution Class VIII (8) Social Studies Chapter 10 Landlords and Tenants under the British and the Nizam.
1.) Make simple questions based on each section of the chapter and ask them to your classmates. Check if the answers are correct.
The questions are:
- Who introduced the Permanent Settlement of Tax and when?
- Who are Zamindars?
- What did Sir Arthur Cotton build?
- What is self-cultivated land know as?
- In 1861 which war started?
- Write the names of any two peasant movements?
- With what did they compensate the old landlords in Hyderabad state?
- Who were called Vetti?
Answer to be done by student.
2.) Compare the condition of tenant farmers before freedom and farmers of today. What differences do you find?
The condition of tenant farmers before freedom they were exploited by the zamindars as they were forced to do vetti and also if they improve their farming, the zamindar immediately increases the share he takes from them. The farmer were in constant fear of loosing land if they couldn’t repay the loan which had high interest and sometimes they could not pay the rent and deserted the lands.
The condition of farmers today have fixed rent to pay and don’t have to run away. In time of need they borrow money from the banks which charge less interest and won’t take over their land if they can’t pay the loan back.
3.) During the freedom movement, some of the zamindars supported the British. Why?
The zamindars supported the British because the policies set by the British were in favour of the zamindars as it gave them exploitation power and the zamindars used their power to do vetti on the poor peasants. The zamindars could take over the land of this farmer by the help of British soldiers this earned the zamindars more assets in the British rule.So they normally supported the British during the freedom movement.
4.) What role did the moneylenders play in the lives of the peasants? In what way they were supported by the British government?
Farmers borrowed loans from moneylenders to pay revenues they could not repay their loans on time, then the moneylenders go to court to get their land auctioned to recover the loan money. Due to this British rule, for collecting land revenue, many peasants fell into deep debt trap. The moneylenders became richer and richer as more and more peasants came under their grip.
The British did not show any interest towards the welfare of the farmers as they were a source of collecting revenue and they were more focused on money they didn’t care how they recovered this revenues. Thus the moneylenders were supported by the British as they acted as an agent for them and looted the Indians together.
5.) What were the similarities and differences between the Doras of Telangana and the zamindars of Awadh?
The similarities between the Doras of Telangana and the zamindars of Awadh are
- Both collected revenues from the peasants for the British.
- Both were independent and were not controlled by local administrative system.
- Both acted as middle man between the cultivator and the company.
- Both controlled their own land.
The differences are
- Doras expanded the scope of vetti by forcing ordinary peasants and village artisan and service castes to work on landlord’s lands whereas the zamindars weren’t so much cruel or forceful with the peasant they were more focused on the revenues.
- The doras were more powerful and owned more lands then the zamindars.
- The doras focused on caste system and treated low cast very badly whereas the zamindar didn’t focus on the caste but on the outcome of the crop.
6.) How did the Ryotwari settlement also give rise to the landlordism?
Even in the Ryotwari areas the land revenue was fixed at a very high level even more than the Zamindari areas as it was fixed for few years after which the revenue was revised, taking in the changed conditions of the land, water and etc. By time in ryotwari areas prices rose faster than the land revenue which made it more profitable to employ tenants to cultivate their lands and receive rent forcibly from them.This huge difference of revenue gave rise too landlords who rented out their lands to helpless for very high rents.
7.) Why were famines caused under British rule? Do you think it was because of the failure of rains or floods?
Famine did happen because of the failure of rains or due to floods but not everytime. The famines caused during the British rule was mainly because of the greediness of the zamindars, Doras, landlords, money lenders who abused the people and made them work day and night and didn’t pay them any money for their service. Some were taken of there crops saved for eating forcible and revenues were higher the price of the crop grown so how will they eat.
8.) In what way can a government help to prevent famines even in times of crop failure?
The steps that government can take to help are:
- By fixing a proper rate of the crop so no can exploit them.
- by supplying agricultural products.
- by providing water facilities .
- by postponing the instalments of their loans.
- by storing the surplus crop.
11.) Read the paragraph under the heading ‘Countless Collections, Cesses and Payments’ and answer the following: How do we pay taxes nowadays?
The modern way to pay tax are directly to the Government through direct taxes & indirect taxes which is used for the development of the people living in the country.