Selina Concise Class 10 Biology Chapter 8 The Circulatory System Solution

Selina Concise Class 10 Biology Solution Chapter No. 8- ‘The Circulatory System’ For ICSE Board Students.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Solution:

Answer:- The major fluids are blood and lymph that circulate in the body.

2) Solution:

Answer:- In a coloured diagram, we generally show the pulmonary artery in blue because the pulmonary artery carries the deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs and pulmonary veins are in red coloured because pulmonary veins carries oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart for circulation.

3) Solution:

Answer:- i) Oxygen send to tissue bfrom lungs. Ii) Carbon dioxide send to lungs from tissues. Iii) hormones send to required organs that secretes by endocrine gland. Iv) Send digested food to the tissues from alimentaryCanal. This are the four substance that transported by blood.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Solution:

(i) Answer:- Plasma is the yellow coloured fluids part of the blood.

(ii) Answer:-  The respiratory pigmentContained in RBCs is Haemoglobin.

(iii) Answer:- Nucleus and mitochondria, this two organelles absent in mature RBCs.

(iv) Answer:- Diapedesis is the process of WBCs squeezing out through the walls of the blood capillaries.

2) Solution

i) Average life span of RBCs.

Answer:- 120 days are the life span of RBCs.

ii) Range of RBCs per mm3 in O normal adult human female.

Answer:- Range of RBCs per mm3 in O normal adult human female is 4.1 to 5.1.

iii) The two major categories of WBCs.

Answer:- The two major categories of WBCs are granulocytes and agranulocytes.

iv) Blood cells involved leukaemia.

Answer:- White blood cells involved leukaemia.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Solution:

i) Answer:- True.

ii) Answer:- True

iii) Answer:- False

Statement: The solid fibrin and thrombin are not same.

iv) Answer:- True.

2) Solution:

(ii) Solution:

Answer:- Haemophilia, Von willerbrand disease related with blood clotting.

(iii) Solution:

Answer:- Anti-A and anti-B are the two antibodies present in O type blood group.

(iv) Solution:

Answer:- Rh stand for Rhesus, the common monkey animal in the context of blood group.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Fill in the blanks.

i) Answer:- Ventricle have thick walls when compared with those auricles.

ii) Answer:- Ventricle give rise to two large blood vessels called pulmonary artery and aAorta.

2) Solution:

i) Tricuspid valve

Answer:- Tricuspid valve located by the right atrium and right ventricle.

ii) Mitral valve

Answer:- The mitral valve is located by the left atrium and left ventricle.

iii) Pulmonary semilunar valves

Answer:- Pulmonary semilunar valve located between ventricle and the pulmonary trunk.

3) Solution:

Answer:-In fig. 8.6., pulmonary artery shown in blue colour because pulmonary arteries carries deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs. So it shows blue colour.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Solution:

Contraction phase of heart.

Answer:- Systole is contraction phase of heart.

2) Solution:

Answer:- Chordae tendinae is holds the heart valve in position.

2) Solution:

Answer:- In the Ventricular systole ,in which Atrio-ventricular valves are closed.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

1) Solution:

(i) Answer:- The veins have thin and less muscular walls ,and have thin pocketshaped to prevent back flow of blood.

(ii) Answer:- A portal carry blood to an organ and break up into pieces ending in capillaries.

(iii) Answer:- Walls of capillaries consists of a single layer of squamousEpithelium cells.

(iv) Answer:-

The substance to and from the tissues diffuse through the walls of Capillary.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

(1) Solution:

Answer:- Pulmonary circulation and Systemic Circulation are the two major circulations of blood in the human body.

(2) Solution:

(i) Pulmonary artery

Answer:- Pulmonary artery carry oxygenated blood to the heart from the lungs and carry deoxygenated blood from heart to the lungs.

(ii) Renal artery

Answer:- Renal artery transported the oxygenated blood from the aorta to the kidney.

(iii) Posterior vena cava

Answer:- Posterior vena cava transport deoxygenated blood from the lower parts of the body to the right atrium to the heart.

(iv) Hepatic veins

Answer:- Hepatic veins carry blood to the inferior vena cava.

(v) Hepatic portal vein

Answer:- The hepatic portal veins carries the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, gallbladder, pancreas and spleen to the liver.

(3) Define Portal vein.

Answer:- Portal vein is defined as, the vein that carrying blood from one part of body I. e. digestive organs and spleen and distributed into another part of the body I. e. To liver through capillaries, is called as portal vein.

PROGRESS CHECK:-

(1) Solution:

Answer:- pulse is nothing but the heart rate.

(2) Solution:

Answer:- The normal values of blood pressure in a normal human adult is 120/80 mm/Hg.

(3) Solution:

Answer:- The White blood cells are the mostly found in Lymph.

(4) Solution:

Answer:- I) Nutrition and oxygen supplies to the those parts where blood not reach. Ii) It drains away excess tissue fluids and metabolites and return protein to the blood from tissues space. Iii) lymph play in the process of absorption through lymphatic.

(5) Solution:

Answer:- The red bone marrow and the thymus gland are the two main lymphatic organs in humans.

(6) Solution:

(i) The smallest WBC.

Answer:- Lymphatic is the smallest WBC.

(ii)

Answer:- A lacteal

(iii)

Answer:- Cervical lymph nodes.

Exercise Solution:

(1) Non -granular WBCs are

Answer:- a) Lymphocytes and monocytes

Explanation: Lymphocytes and monocytes having not specific granules in the cytoplasm, so they are Non -granular.

2) White blood cells engulf bacteria in a process called

Answer:- Phagocytosis.

Explanation: White blood cells like dendritic cell, mast cell, monocytes, nutrophills, that defend the body by engulfing pathogens. And this process is called phagocytosis.

3) The nearest organ to which the heart supplies oxygenated blood is

Answer:- d) Heart itself.

Explanation: Heart supply oxygen to itself to stay body healthy, it needs oxygen .

4) When doctor is recording your pulse, he is pressing on your wrist exactly on a

Answer:- Artery

Because, when dr. Record pulse, he is pressing on wrist exactly on arteries then the pulse match with heartbeat that pump blood into arteries.

5) The blood vessels supplying blood to the kidney

Answer:- b) Renal artery

Renal artery are short &spring directly from abdominal aorta, so artery deliver blood to kidney at more pressure.

6) Angina pectorie is due to

Answer:- b) chest pain due to Explanation: inadequate supply of oxygen to the heart muscle.

8) Heart sounds are produced due to

Answer:- closure of atrio-ventricular and semilunar valve.

Explanation: Because sound produce only when shutting of valves on the blood inside heart.

B.) Very SHORT ANSWER TYPE.

1) Solution:

Answer:-

a) Blood platelets and bloodcoagulation.

b) Neutrophils and phagocytosis

c) Erythrocyte and transportationofgases

d) Bone marrow and destruction of old and weak RBC.

2) Solution:

a) The cells which transport oxygen to different parts of the human body.

Answer:- The red blood cells are transport oxygen to different parts of the human body.

b) The cells that initiate blood clotting.

Answer:- Tissues factor that initiate blood clotting.

3) Solution:

a) Solution:

Answer:- Hepatic portal veins

b) Solution:

Answer:- Blood capillaries

c) Solution:

Answer:- pulmonary artery

d) Solution:

Answer:- White blood cells

e) Solution:

Answer:- venules

f) Solution:

Answer:- Atrial systole

h) Solution:

Answer:- Tricuspid valve

i) Solution:

Answer:- Atrial systole

j) Solution:

Answer:- pericardial fluid.

4) Solution:

a) Answer:- The blood vessels that begins and in capillaries is the Hepatic portal vein.

b) Answer:- A blood vessels which has small lumen and thick wall is artery.

5) Solution:

a)

Answer:-

Lub: atrio-ventricular valve::Dub: semilunar valve.

b)

Answer:-

Coronary artery: Heart::Hepatic Artery:: Liver.

6.) Solution:

Answer:- Mature mammalian erythrocyte are lacks nucleus and mitochondria because, generally erythrocyte may blood cells. Mature erythrocyte are non nucleated, without mitochondria and that Carries oxygenated molecules and therefore, when the lack of nucleus and mitochondria ,mature RBC are in penculiar biconcave in shape and so it make place for reconciliation of more oxygen molecule and also haemoglobin.

C.) SHORT ANSWER TYPE

1.) Solution:

Answer:-

Red blood cells White blood cells
RBC have a small biconcave disc like structures. WBC have basically No shape i.e amoeboid shaped.
It has about 120 days of life span. It has about 13 – 20 days of life span.
It does not contain Nucleus It contains Nucleus
It is filled with haemoglobin It does not contain haemoglobin

2.) Solution:

Answer:- Because, if someone need to a blood transfusion then they should test that is blood typing test to determining a person’s blood group. Because, not all type of blood group are not capable. And therefore it is important to know the blood type. If incompatible blood transfusion then Recipient develop antibodies. And that antibodies attack the antigen on RBC of donor and due to all may causes blood cells clump together which may be result into death.. And so, most important to know the blood group before giving transfusion.

3) Differentiate between members of the each of following pairs with reference to phrases in brackets.

a) Antibodies and antibiotics (Source)

Answer:-

Antibodies Antibiotic
These is naturally present in one’s body These is formed purposefully to prevent the diseases
These are the cells which are formed from the B- cells . (White blood cells) These  are produced from microorganisms and fungi.
These functions to prevent the disease causing germs grow in the body. These is also known as antibacterial which is used to stop or kill the bacteria.

b) Serum and vaccine (composition)

Answer:-

Serum Vaccine
It is a plasma without Fibrinogen protein. It is man made preparation which gives the immunity to the body.

c) Erythrocyte and Leukocytes (functions)

Answer:-

Erythrocytes Leukocytes
These are the Carriers of ox haemoglobin towards the tissues.

These is carried from lungs to body tissues.

These are the cells which protects the body from the diseases .

d) Tricuspid value and bicuspid value (location)

Answer:-

Tricuspid valve Bicuspid valve
These is the valve which Is made up of  three 3 closing and opening shutters of  muscle. These is made up of 2 shutters of muscles
These is also known as right atrio-ventricular valve These is also known as left atrio-ventricular valve
It present in between the right auricle and right  ventricle It is present between left auricle and left ventricle.

4) Solution:

Answer:- Two Sounds of LUBB and DUB in normal heartbeat should be heard. LUBB sound produced when closing of mitral Bicuspid and tricuspid atrio-ventricular valve. And DUB sound produced when closing of semilunar valve. In this way, two sounds are produced from valves locking on the blood inside heart.

5.) Solution:

Answer:- Because, left ventricle (left chamber) of heart that pump oxygenated blood to whole body , right ventricle thatIs in centre between the two lungs and above the diaphragm that pump blood only to lungs. Therefore, during contraction of heart is need to be stronger and most powerful at their narrow end and roughly triangular heart is pointed. So people have common belief that the heart is located on the left side of the chest.

6.) Solution:

Column A Column B
A)SA Node I) plasma
B) defective haemoglobin in RBC II) serum
C( Muscle fibres located in heart III ( Pacemaker
D) the liquid squeezed out of blood during clotting IV) sickle cell anaemias
E) never tires, keep on contracting and relaxing V) Purkinje fibres
F) cardiac cycle VI) cardiac muscle
G) liquid part of the blood without corpuscles VII) 0-85 sec

Answer:-

Column A

 

Answers
SA node

 

Pacemaker
Defective haemoglobin in RBC

 

Sickle cell anaemia
Muscle fibres located in heart

 

Purkinje fibres
The liquid squeezed out of blood During clotting

 

Serum
Never tires keep on controlling and relaxing

 

Cardiac muscle
Cardiac cycle

 

0.85 sec
Liquid part of the blood without corpuscles Plasma

7) Solution:

Answer :-

Substance From To

 

1.          Oxygen Lungs Whole body
2.          Carbon dioxide Wholebody Lungs
3.          Urea Wholebody Kidneys
4.          Digested carbohydrates Intestine Wholebody
5.          Hormones Endocrineglands Targetorgans

D. DESCRIPTIVE TYPE:-

1) Define the following term

(a) Circulatory system

Answer:- Circulatory system is also called as the cardiovascular system, that transfer the blood by our body tissues.

(b) Blood

Answer:- Blood is defined as, Blood is red blood fluid that transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to the tissues of body.

(c) Heart

Answer:- Heart is nothing but the hollow muscular organ that placed in chest and send blood around our body.

(d) Diapedesis

Answer:- Movement of blood cells through the capillary walls that enter into the tissues, is called as the Diapedesis.

(e) Phagocytosis

Answer:- phagocytosis is the process in which a cell ingest a particle and digest it,is called as phagocytosis.

(f) Rh  factor

Answer:- Rh factor is the protein that placed on red blood cells surface.

2) Solution:

a) Systole and Diastole.

Answer:-

Systole Diastole
The normal range of systole is 60/80 mm Hg.

 

The normal range of diastole is 90 – 120 mm Hg.
It occurs when the heart is in contraction These happens after the contraction of heart. I.e relaxation
In systole position the pressure in the Artery is maximum In diastole position the pressure on the Artery is minimum.

b) Arteriole and venule.

Answer:-

Arterioles Venule
Arterioles are having thin wall. But it has three layers. Venuleshave slightly thin walls
It helps in the distribution of the blood From larger blood vessels to the capillary beds It helps in the returning of the blood frim capillary beds to the large blood vessels
These have some type of smooth muscle These have some amount of smooth muscle and also some elastic muscles.

c) Universal donor and universal recipient.

Answer:-

Universal donor Universal accepter
Universal donor of  is a type of blood group From which All type of blood group  can receive the RBCs Universal accepter Is the one which can accept RBCs from any blood group.
O – type Of blood group is the universal donor AB + type of blood group is the universal accepter.

d) Arteries and veins.

Answer:-            

Arteries Veins
Arteries are the Carriers of oxygenated blood Veins are the carriers deoxygenated blood
These moves from heart to all body parts These moves From all body parts to the heart
These ends up on the Capillaries These starts from the Capillaries

3) Give reasons /explains.

(a) The left ventricle has thicker walls than the right ventricle.

Answer:– Because, left ventricles are more muscular than right ventricles. Left ventricle pump the blood at a higher pressure and right ventricle has pump to lungs which required less pressure. Therefore, left ventricle having thicker walls due to the force of contraction is high.

(b) The walls of right ventricle are thicker than those of the right auricles.

Answer:- The walls of right ventricle are thicker because of having pump for deoxygenation and in case of right auricle, they take blood from the vena cava and transfer into right ventricle. So the wall of right ventricle thicker than right auricles.

(c) Vitamin K is essential for the process of blood clotting.

Answer:- Vitamin K is important to our body, it produced clotting factor in blood clotting process. And it send anticlotting protein that present in clotting protein. Therefore vitamin K is essential for blood clotting process, except vitamin k, clot formation not important.

4.) Solution:

a) Tonsils

Answer:- role of Tonsils:- White blood cells that contain in tonsils that kill to the germ. The tonsils are located in throat and palate, tonsils helps to stop the entry of germ through mouth into body.

b) Spleen

Answer:– The main role of spleen is removing the damaged red blood cells and old red blood cells. Spleen produce lymphocytes. During filtration, spleen protect iron.

c) Hepatic portal veins

Answer:- Hepatic portal veins carry venous blood from gastrointestinal tract to the liver.

d) Basophils

Answer:- They are considered to be the circulating from the mast. So their function are similar to mast cells. Basophils are responsible for emergence of anaphylactic shock.

e) S. A. N.

Answer:- SAN is the storage Area Network. Important role of SAN is the organization business continuityManagement activity. They help in data protection and security improve.

4) Solution:

Answer:- Double circulation is nothing but blood circulate twice in heart that is short pulmonary circulation and long systemic circulation, therefore blood circulation is called as the double circulation. There are two types of circulation in our body. I. e. Pulmonary artery and systemic circulation. Pulmonary circulation take deoxygenated blood to the lungs and it returned oxygenated blood to the heart. Pulmonary artery is place of the carry oxygenated blood to the body organ andReturn deoxygenated blood to the heart. It place in left ventricle.

6) Solution:

Answer:- Main steps of coagulation blood:-

1.At first, a substance liberated that is thrombokinase by the decomposing of injured cells and platelets at the site of wound.

2.Actually thrombokinase acts as enzymes with calcium ions present in plasma, and it convert prothrombin into thrombin of the plasma.

3.Now, insoluble fibrin is formed by reacting the thrombin with solubleFibrinogen in the presence of calcium ion of plasma.

4.Into the fibrin network, blood cells are trapped and shrink out from the plasma in the form of liquid.

7.) Solution:

Answer:- The functions of blood plasma are the transport and conservation of important elements. Blood viscosity, blood clotting, buffer and osmotic functions.Digested food transport from alimentary canal to tissues. Heat distribution into body. Hormones distribution from gland to their target site. Excretory materialsTransport from tissues to excretory organs.

8.) Solution:

Answer:- Blood having many functions like oxygen, carbon dioxide transportation, products metabolism, protection, thermoregulatory, detoxification, etc.

1.Carbon dioxide transport to lungs from tissues. 2.Hormones distribution into blood from gland. 3.oxygen transfer from lungs to tissue. 4.To kidney, liver excretory materials transfer from tissues.

E. STRUCTURED/APPLICATION/SKIL L TYPE:-

(1)

a) Solution:

Answer:-

part 1 indicated the Red blood cells.

Part 2 indicated by White blood cells. Part 3 indicated as Blood platelets.

Part 4 indicated as plasma.

2) Solution:

Answer:- part 1 and part 2 labelled as RBC and WBC respectively.

Red blood cells

 

White blood cells
RBC have a small biconcave disc like structures.

 

WBC have basically No shape i.e amoeboid shaped.
It has life span of about 120 days

 

It has life span of about 13 – 20
It does not have Nucleus

 

It has Nucleus in it.
It has haemoglobin It does not have haemoglobin

 

(c) Solution:

Answer:- functions of part 1,2,3-

1.RBC -RBC helps to transfer of carbon dioxide to lungs. And oxygen also deliver to body.

2.WBC-WBC helps to protect the body against the infectious disease. 3.platelets-Blood platelets help to prevent bleeding after cut the vessels.

(d) What is the life span of part labelled 1?

Answer:- In part 1 labelled as Red blood cells and the life span of RBC is about 120 days.

(e) Name a soluble protein found in 4 which helps in clotting of blood?

Answer:- Thromboplastin is a soluble protein found in 4 that helps in clotting of blood.

(2) 

a)

Answer:- Part 3 represent the Heart. In Heart, double circulation is occurred because in heart blood flows twice that means shortly pulmonary circulation andThe long systematic circulation. In this way, blood circulate in body.

b)

Answer:- Aorta -number 5 Renal veins-number 8 Hepatic portal veins-number 7 Stomach -number 10 Pulmonary artery-number 1 Superior vena -number 9.

3) Solution:

a) Solution:

Answer:- Vessels A is artery, B is veins, c is capillary.

b) Solution:

Answer:- part 1-4 labelled as –

1 -connective tissues

2-Lumen

3-Smooth muscles and elastic fibres.

4-Endothelium

c) Solution:

Answer:-

Artery Veins
Arteries are the Carriers of oxygenated blood Veins are the carriers of deoxygenated blood.
These ends upon the Capillaries These starts from the Capillaries.
These carry oxygenated blood from heart to all body parts These carry deoxygenated blood from Body parts to the heart.

d) Solution:

Answer:- Oxygenated blood flow through A, and deoxygenated blood flow through B.

e) Solution:

Answer:- In above (a), capillary vessels does the exchange of gases actually take place.

4) Solution:

a) Solution:

Answer:- Ventricular systole and atrial diastole is the name of phase.

b) Solution:

Answer:- The part of heart is ventricles is the contracting in this phase. Because out of two ventricles, to pumping the blood semilunar and aortic semilunar valve are open and tricuspid and bicuspid valve closed.

c) Solution:

Answer:-

1-pulmonary artery.

2- Aorta

3-Pulmonary veins.

4-Left atrium

5-Bicuspid valve.

6-Right ventricles.

d) Solution:

Answer:- Through marked 1 pulmonary artery flows deoxygenated blood and through 2 aorta flows oxygenated blood.

e) Solution:

Answer:- Two valve are closed in this phase. That is tricuspid valve and Bicuspid valve.

5) Solution:

a)
Solution:

Answer:- labelled 1 is the Red blood cells (RBC)

b) Solution:

Answer:- Diapedesis phenomenon is Occurring in A.

c) Solution:

Answer:- In structure 1-Red blood cells and 2-White blood cells

 

Red blood cells White blood cells
RBC or red blood cells Are small, minute biconcave shaped. WBC or white blood cells  have basically No shape i.e amoeboid shaped
It has life span of 120 days It has life span of 13 – 20 Days
It does not have Nucleus but it is filled with haemoglobin It has Nucleus but it does not haemoglobin

d) Solution:

Answer:-phagocytosis is the process in B and C. and in human body, the important of phagocytosis process as like to control the occurring the disease, ingestion and also help in elimination of pathogens.

6) Solution:

a) Solution:

Answer:- The types of blood vessels numbered 1-5 as like-

1 =  Arteriole

2 = artery

3 = Venule

4 =  Capillaries

5 = vein

b) Solution:

Answer:- In lungs, can be found such an arrangement.

7) Solution:

a) Solution:

Answer:- when the liquid from the blood surrounds the cells, is called as tissues fluids.

b) Solution:

Answer:- RBC(Red blood cell) are one of the important components of the blood which remain inside the capillaries and fails the move out the spaces.

c) Solution:

Answer:- In vessels X, lymph fluid is present.

d) Solution:

Answer:- In vessels X, the lymph fluid is present. The functions of lymph as follows-

a) In our body, where blood cannot reach, to those parts oxygen and nutrition supplied by lymph.

b) lymphatic absorbed fats that from intestine.

Updated: August 26, 2021 — 5:17 pm

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