Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 3 Pdf

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 3 Pdf

Tamilnadu Board Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 3: Tamilnadu State Board Solution Class 9 Social Science History Chapter 3 – Early Tamil Society and Culture.

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 3: Overview


Samacheer Kalvi



Social Science History


Chapter Name

Early Tamil Society and Culture

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science History Solutions Chapter 3 Early Tamil Society and Culture

I.) Choose the correct Answer:

1.) The name of the script used in the Sangam Age

a) English

b) Devanagari

c) Tamil-Brahmi

d) Granta

2.) The Sri Lankan chronicle composed in the Pali language mentioning about merchants and horse traders from Tamil Nadu.

a) Deepa vamsa

b) Arthasastra

c) Mahavamsa

d) Indica

3.) The notable Chola king credited with bringing forest lands under the plough and developing irrigational facilities

a) Karikalan

b) Rajarajan I

c) Kulothungan

d) Rajendran I

4.) Inscription that mentions the Cheras

a) Pugalur

b) Girnar

c) Pulimankombai

d) Madurai

5.) (i) Coins as a medium of exchange were introduced for the first time in the Mesolithic Age.

(ii) Prakrit was the language used by the common people in Northern India during the Mauryan period.

(iii) Vienna Papyrus, a Roman document, mentions trade related to Muziri.

(iv) The concept of Thinai is presented in the Tamil grammar work of Pathupaatu.

a) (i) is correct

b) (ii) is correct

c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

d) (iii) and (iv) are correct

6.) (i) Pathitrupathu speaks about the Pandya kings and their territory.

(ii) The Akanaanuru describes the trading activities at Kaveripoompattinum.

(iii) The Chola Emblem was the tiger and they issued square copper coins with images of a tiger.

(iv) Neythal is a sandy desert region.

a) (i) is correct

b) (ii) and (iii) are correct

c) (iii) is correct

d) (iv) is correct.

II.) Fill in the blanks

1.) Inscriptions are documents scripted on stones, copper plates, coins and rings.

2.) Archaeology refers to systematically digging a site to recover material evidence for exploring societies of the past.

3.) Arthasastra the classic work on economy and statecraft authored by Kautilya during the Mauryan period.

4.) Thinai is a poetic theme which means a class or category and refers to a habitat or eco-zone with specific physiographical characteristics.

5.) Yavnar referred to the Westerners, including the Greeks, Romans and West Asian people.

III.) Find out the correct statement

1.) a) Evidence of iron smelting has been found in Kodumanal and Guttur.     

b) Periplus of Erythren Sea mentions about the pepper trade with India.

c) Punch marked coins are the earliest coins used in India mostly made of gold.

d) The Sangam Age has its roots in the Bronze Age.

Answer: Only a) is correct

2.) a) The Cheras ruled over Kaveri delta and their capital was Uraiyur.

b) The Maangulam Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions mention the King Karikalan.

c) The terms Vanikan and Nigama appear in Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions were different types of merchants.

d) Salt merchants were called Vanikars and they travelled in bullock carts along with their family.

Answer: Only c) is correct.

IV.) Match the following


1.) Epigraphy              – the study of inscriptions

2.) Chronicle               – a narrative text presenting the important historical events

3.) Pastoralism            – nomadic people earning livelihood by rearing cattle

4.) Cameo                    – an ornament made in precious stone.

5.) Arikkamedu           – a Sangam Age port

V.) Answer the following questions briefly

1.) Archaeological sites provide evidence of past history – Discuss.

Answer: Archaeology is the study of the remains by the civilisation. When a civilisation lives then there were many things they use in their day to day life and activities. Things used by them sometimes have longer life than a human being or any other living thing. The scientific study of the things, tools, weapons or anything remained that time can help to know the civilisation and explore about them. Houses, temples, tombs, pyramids could be the places where archaeologist investigate and try to know about the civilisation. Archaeologist make theories, hypothesis, research, classification of data, analyse the data. Archaeologist use different techniques and tools for the study.

2.) How important are coins as a source of evidence for the study of Sangam Age?

Answer: Coin hold the importance due to its value and the person who having to produce it. Coins only produced or made by the king and when any king was producing coin he imprints symbols of the dynasty. As coins holding value, they were prized, traded with it and old times it’s buried as a safe deposit. Hence the place where coins are found is studied as a archaeological site. When Pandya dynasty was ruling they also issued coins. The symbol of the Pandya dynasty was fish and on the coins at that time this symbol of fish was found.

3.) Agriculture was one of the main sources of subsistence in Sangam Age. Give reasons.

Answer: Agriculture was one of the main subsistence for the people of Sangam age. People were cultivating rice, sugarcane and millets. Rice cultivated near rivers and irrigated areas and millets are cultivated on dry lands so we can understand that the wet and dry land farming was practiced at the time. From the literature of the Sangam age it is found that the varieties of rice like sennel, vennel and aivananel were existed. At excavations in Adichanallur and Porunthal, the rice grains were found which supports the literature.

4.) Overseas interactions brought glory to ancient Tamilagam. Give examples in support.

Answer: Tamilagam was connected to countries overseas. Monsoon winds were used by Roman ships to cross the Western Sean or the Arabian Sea to connect Tamilagam with the Western world. Pepper, precious stones, ivory were exported from Tamilagam and metals like gold, silver and copper were imported. Apart from the Westerners, the Greeks, Romans, and the West Asian people were trading with Tamilagam.

VI.) Answer the following in detail

1.) To what extent do you think the political powers of Tamilagam influenced Sangam Age polity?

Answer: In the Sangam period the three kings known as Muvendhar were controlling major towns and ports. Those three kings were the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas. The Cheras mentioned as Keralaputras in the Ashokan inscriptions. Kerala and western parts of Tamil Nadu were under control of the Cheras. Cheran Senguttuvan built a tempe for kannagi. Kannagi was the protagonist of the epic. The symbol of Chera was bow and arrow.

The rule of the Cholas was over the kaveri delta and the northern parts of Tamil Nadu. Uraiyur was the capital of Cholas. The Cholas were holding power over port town Kaveripoompattinam or Pumpuhar, it is the place where Kaveri river drains into the Bay of Bengal. The poet Kadiyalur Uruthirankannanar composed a long poem regarding kaveripoompattinam. Trading activities at the town kaveripoompattinam was described by Silappathikaram. Karikalan was one of the Chola king. He is well known for implementing water irrigation facilities by using Kaveri river. The foundation of water harnessing for irrigation purpose was set up during Chola rule. King karikalan fought battles with the Pandyas, Cheras and other clans. A square coin found from the Chola time, it has a image of tiger on the obverse, elephant and the sacred symbols on the reverse.

According to the Ashokan inscriptions the Pandyas ruled southern part of Tamil Nadu. Their capital was Madurai. Credit of Tamil literary tradition goes to Pandyan rulers. They patronized Tamil Sangams (Academies) and supported the compilations. Nediyon, Mudathirumaran, palayagasalai, Mudukudumipperuvazhuthi were some of the important rulers of the Pandyan dynasty. The symbol of this dynasty was the fish.

2.) Indicate how the industries and crafts of the Sangam Age contribute to their economy.

Answer: Main aspects of the urbanization were Craft produces. There was many professionals for different arts and crafts. Potters were known as Kalamceyko and they were providing variety of pottery like black ware, russet-coated painted ware, black and red ware etc. Some of the iron smelters were smelting furnaces. At many archaeological sites like Kodumanal and Guttur furnaces are found with terracotta pipes and raw ore is also found. Iron was processed for agriculture and warfare purposes. People of Sangam age were adorned themselves with a variety of ornaments. Ornaments made from stone, clay, iron, terracotta and leaves and flower were for the poor people whereas rich people were wearing jewellery made of precious stones, copper and gold.

Updated: June 13, 2021 — 12:46 am

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