Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Pdf
Tamilnadu Board Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 17: Tamilnadu State Board Solution Class 10 Science Chapter 17 – REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS.
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 17: Overview
|Chapter Name||REPRODUCTION IN PLANTS AND ANIMALS|
Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 17 Pdf
Reproduction in plants and animals
Choose the correct answer
1> The plant which propagates with the help of its leaves is ___________.
- a) Onion
- b) Neem
- c) Ginger
- d) Bryophyllum
Ans: d) Bryophyllum
Because, in bryophyllum small plants grow at the leaf of notches.
2> Asexual reproduction takes place through budding in ___________.
- a) Amoeba
- b) Yeast
- c) Plasmodium
- d) Bacteria
Ans: b) Yeast
Because, yeast shows asexual reproduction through budding.
3> Syngamy results in the formation of _________.
- a) Zoospores
- b) Conidia
- c) Zygote
- d) Chlamydospores
Ans: c) Zygote
Because, one sperm fuses with the egg and forms a diploid zygote, called as syngamy.
4> The essential parts of a flower are ___________.
- a) Calyx and Corolla
- b) Calyx and Androecium
- c) Corolla and Gynoecium
- d) Androecium and Gynoecium
Ans: d) Androecium and Gynoecium
Because, they both takes part in reproduction directly.
5> Anemophilous flowers have __________.
- a) Sessile stigma
- b) Small smooth stigma
- c) Colored flower
- d) Large feathery stigma
Ans: d) Large feathery stigma
Because, pollination is takes place with the help of wind.
6> Male gametes in angiosperms are formed by the division of ___________.
- a) Generative cell
- b) Vegetative cell
- c) Microspore mother cell
- d) Microspore
Ans: a) Generative cell
Because, by the division of generative cell forms the male gamete in angiosperm.
7) What is true of gametes?
- a) They are diploid
- b) They give rise to gonads
- c) They produce hormones
- d) They are formed from gonads
Ans: d) They are formed from gonads
Because, true gametes are those which are formed from gonads.
8> A single highly coiled tube where sperms are stored, get concentrated and mature is known as
- a) Epididymis
- b) Vasa efferentia
- c) Vas deferens
- d) Seminiferous tubules
Ans: a) Epididymis
9) The large elongated cells that provide nutrition to developing sperms are
- a) Primary germ cells
- b) Sertoli cells
- c) Leydig cells
- d) Spermatogonia
Ans: b) Sertoli cells
Because, the sertoli cells are the supporting cells and provides nutrients to the developing sperms.
10> Estrogen is secreted by
- a) Anterior pituitary
- b) Primary follicle
- c) Graffian follicle
- d) Corpus luteum
Ans: c) Graffian follicle
Because, estrogen is secreted by Graafian follicle of ovary.
11) Which one of the following is an IUCD?
- a) Copper – T
- b) Oral pills
- c) Diaphragm
- d) Tubectomy
Ans: a) Copper – T
Because, Copper-T is the intrauterine device inserted into the uterus as a contraceptive device.
Fill in the blanks
1> The embryo sac in a typical dicot at the time of fertilization is ___________.
Ans:The embryo sac in a typical dicot at the time of fertilization is female gametophyte.
2> After fertilization the ovary develops into ___________.
Ans:After fertilization the ovary develops intofruit.
3> Planaria reproduces asexually by ___________.
Ans:Planaria reproduces asexually byregeneration.
4> Fertilization is __________ in humans
Ans: Fertilization is internalin humans.
5> The implantation of the embryo occurs at about ___________ day of fertilization
Ans: The implantation of the embryo occurs at about 6 to 7day of fertilization
6> ___________ is the first secretion fromthe mammary gland after child birth
Ans:Colostrumis the first secretion from the mammary gland after child birth.
7>Prolactin is a hormone produced by ___________.
Ans: Prolactin is a hormone produced by anterior pituitary.
III. (a) Match the following
- Fission: Amoeba
- Budding: Yeast
- Fragmentation: Spirogyra
III. (b) Match the following terms with their respective meanings
- Parturition: Delivery of baby from a uterus.
- Gestation: Duration between pregnancy and birth.
- Ovulation: Release of the egg from Graafian follicle.
- Implantation: Attachment of zygote to the endometrium.
State whether the following statements are true or false. Correct the false statement
1) Stalk of the ovule is called pedicle.
Correct statement: The stalk of the ovule is called funiculus.
2> Seeds are the product of asexual reproduction.
Correct statement: Seeds are the product of sexual reproduction.
3> Yeast reproduces asexually by means of multiple fission.
Correct statement: Yeast reproduces asexually by means of budding.
4> The part of the pistil which serves as a receptive structure for the pollen is called as style.
Correct statement: The part of the pistil which serve as a receptive structure for the pollen is called as stigma.
5> Insect pollinated flowers are characterized by dry and smooth pollen.
Correct statement: Insect pollinated flowers are characterized by larger and spiny pollen.
6> Sex organs produce gametes which are diploid.
Correct statement: Sex organs produce gametes which are haploid.
7> LH is secreted by the posterior pituitary.
Correct statement: LH is secreted by anterior pituitary.
8> Menstrual cycle ceases during pregnancy.
9> Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
Answer in a word or sentence
1> If one pollen grain produces two male gametes, how many pollen grains are needed to fertilize 10 ovules?
Ans: If one pollen grain produces two male gametes then, 10 pollen grains are needed to fertilize 10 ovules.
2> In which part of the flower germination of pollen grains takes place?
Ans: In the stigma of the female flower, germination of pollen grains takes place.
3> Name two organisms which reproduces through budding.
Ans: The organisms yeast and hydra reproduces through budding.
4> Mention the function of endosperm.
Ans:Endosperm provides the food to the developing embryo.
5> Name the hormone responsible for the vigorous contractions of the uterine muscles.
Ans:The oxytocin from the posterior pituitary stimulates the uterine contractions and provides force to expel the baby from the uterus causing birth.
6> What is the enzyme present in acrosome of sperm?
Ans: Acrosome contains hyaluronidase an enzyme which helps the sperm to enter into the ovum during fertilization.
7> When is World Menstrual Hygiene Day observed?
Ans:Every year May 28 is observed as Menstrual Hygiene Day to make girls and women aware of maintaining menstrual hygiene and importance of menstrual hygiene for good health.
8) What is the need for contraception?
Ans: Contraception is one of the best birth control measures which helps in reducing population.
9) Name the part of the human female reproductive system where the following occurs.
In the human female reproductive system, fertilization occurs in oviduct of female genital tract.
And implantation occurs in uterus.
Short answer question
1) What will happen if you cut planaria into small fragments?
Ans: Planaria has the ability of regeneration. Regeneration is the ability of lost body parts of an individual organism to give a whole new organism. When we cut planaria into small fragments, each fragment has one cell which gives new planaria, by the process of regeneration.
2) Why is vegetative propagation practiced for growing some type of plants?
Ans: In vegetative reproduction, new plantlets are formed from vegetative i.e. somatic cells, buds or organs of plant. The vegetative part of plant like stem, root, leaf or bud is detached from the parent body and growed as an independent daughter plant. Mainly it has only mitotic division, no gametic fusion and also daughter plants are genetically similar to the parent plant. Hence, vegetative propagation is practiced for growing some type of plants.
3) How does binary fission differ from multiple fission?
- In binary fission the parent nucleus is divided into two parts only.
- Binary fission gives new individuals.
- In binary fission, cytoplasm get divided after each nuclear division.
- For example: Amoeba
- In multiple fission, parent nucleus is divided into many parts.
- Multiple fission gives many number of new individuals.
- In multiple fission, cytoplasm does not get divided after each nuclear division.
- For example: Plasmodium
4) Define triple fusion.
Ans: The fusion of one male gamete with the secondary nucleus to produce primary endosperm nucleus is called as triple fusion.
5) Write the characteristics of insect pollinated flowers.
- The pollination using insects like honey bees, flies is called as entomophily.
- And these flowers are brightly coloured, having smell and nectar to attract the insects easily for pollination.
- These flowers are having pollen grain larger in size, exine is pitted and spiny so that insects can be adhered easily on the stigma for pollination.
6) Name the secondary sex organs in male
Ans: The secondary sex organs in male are vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate gland and penis.
7) What is colostrum? How milk production is hormonally regulated?
Ans: The first fluid released from the mammary gland after child birth is called as colostrum. The anterior pituitary secrets a hormone prolactin which stimulates the milk production from alveoli of mammary glands. And oxytocin secreted by posterior pituitary gland stimulates the ejection of milk.
9) How developing embryo does gets its nourishment inside the mother’s body?
- Placenta is the disc shaped structure which is attached to the uterine wall and acts as a temporary association between developing embryo and the material tissues.
- It helps in allowing exchange of food materials, diffusion of oxygen, and excretion of nitrogenous waste and eliminates carbon dioxide.
- The cord connecting placenta and foetus containing blood vessels is called as umbilical cord.
10) Identify the parts A, B, C and D
Fig. Pollen grain
A) Exine, B) Intine, C) Generative cell, D) Vegetative nucleus
11) Write the events involved in the sexual reproduction of a flowering plant.
Ans: The process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves two events.
Discuss the first event and write the types.
The first event involved is pollination. The process of transferring pollen grain from anther to stigma of the flower is called pollination.
Pollination results in fertilization and causes formation of fruits and seeds.
There are two types of pollination.
- a) Self-pollination: The process of transferring pollen grain from anther to stigma of the same flower or another flower of the same plant is called as self-pollination or autogamy.
- b) Cross pollination: The process of transferring pollen grain of the flower to the stigma of a flower of another plant but of the same species is called as cross pollination.
Mention the advantages and the disadvantages of that event.
Advantages of self-pollination:
- Bisexual flowers also shows self-pollination.
- In self-pollination, no pollinating agent is required and hence no wastage of pollen grain.
Disadvantages of Self-pollination:
- In self-pollination the seeds produced are less in number.
- As the endosperm is minute, the plants produced by the seeds are weak.
- As self-pollination is between the same flowers or between the flowers of the same plants, hence no varieties of the plants are produced.
Advantages of Cross pollination:
- As cross pollination is between the flowers of different plants but of same species, the seeds produced grow properly, develop and germinate into better plants.
- And hence different varieties of plants are produced with more viable seeds.
Disadvantages of Cross pollination:
- Due to the distance barrier pollination may fails in cross pollination.
- Due to more distance, during pollination more wastage of pollen grains may occurs.
- And hence it may introduce some unwanted characters in the plants.
- In cross pollination, external agents are required for pollination.
VII. Long answer questions
1) With a neat labelled diagram describe the parts of a typical angiospermic ovule.
- Following figure describes the parts of typical angiosperms ovule.
- The main important part of the ovule is nucellus and it is enclosed within two integuments which leaves an opening called as micropyle.
- The ovule is connected to ovary wall by stalk called as funiculus. And chalaza is the basal part of the ovule.
- Ovule has an embryo sac which contains seven cells and eighth is the nuclei positioned in the nucellus.
- The egg apparatus is formed by the three cells which are at the micropylar end. And the three cells at chalaza end are the antipodal cells. The remaining two nuclei are located in the centre called as polar nuclei. In the egg apparatus, one cell is the female gametes and the remained two cells are synergids.
Fig. Structure of typical angiospermic ovule
VIII. Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)
1) In angiosperms the pollen germinates to produce pollen tube that carries two gametes. What is the purpose of carrying two gametes when single gamete can fertilize the egg?
- In angiosperms the pollen germinates to produce pollen tube which carries two gametes. Since, tip of pollen tube bursts and two sperms i.e. male gametes enters the embryo sac.
- One sperm fuses with the egg by forming diploid zygote and the other sperm fuses with the secondary nucleus by forming primary endosperm nucleus which is triploid in nature and nourishes the developing embryo. The whole process is called as double fertilization.
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