Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Pdf

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Pdf

Tamilnadu Board Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 14: Tamilnadu State Board Solution Class 10 Science Chapter 14 – TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS AND CIRCULATION IN ANIMALS.

Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 14: Overview

Board

Samacheer Kalvi
Class

10

Subject

Science
Chapter

14

Chapter Name

TRANSPORTATION IN PLANTS AND CIRCULATION IN ANIMALS


Samacheer Kalvi 10th Science Solutions Chapter 14 Pdf

 

Exercise

 

 Choose the correct answer

1) Active transport involves

a) movement of molecules from lower to higher concentration

b) Expenditure of energy

c) It is an uphill task

d) all of the above

Ans: a) movement of molecules from lower to higher concentration

Because, in active transport the pumps can transport substances from a low concentration to a high concentration i.e. uphill transport.

 

2) Water which is absorbed by roots is transported to aerial parts of the plant through

a) cortex

b) Epidermis

c) Phloem

d) Xylem

Ans: d) Xylem

Because, xylem helps in transporting water from roots to all parts of the plant body.

 

3) During transpiration there is loss of

a) Carbon dioxide

b) Oxygen

c) Water

d) None of the above

Ans: c) Water

Because, transpiration is the process in which water is evaporated from the aerial parts of the plant body mainly through the stomata in the leaves.

 

4) Root hairs are

a) Cortical cell

b) Projection of epidermal cell

c) Unicellular

d) Both b and c

Ans: b) Projection of epidermal cell

Because, root hairs are thin walled, slender extension of epidermal cell that increases the surface area of absorption.

 

 5) Which of the following process requires energy?

a) Active transport

b) Diffusion

c) Osmosis

d) all of them

Ans: a) Active transport

Because, active transport utilizes energy to pump molecules against concentration gradient.

 

6) The wall of human heart is made of

a) Endocardium

b) Epicardium

c) Myocardium

d) All of the above

Ans: d) All of the above

Because, the wall of heart is made of three layers namely endocardium, myocardium and epicardium.

 

7) Which is the correct sequence of blood flow

a) Ventricle atrium vein arteries

b) Atriumventricle veins arteries

c) Atrium ventricle arteries vein

d) Ventricles vein atrium arteries

Ans: c) Atrium ventricle arteries vein

 

8) A patient with blood group O was injured in an accident and has blood loss. Which group of blood should be used by doctor for transfusion?

a) O group

b) AB group

c) A or B group

d) All blood group

Ans: a) O group

Because, O blood group is universal donor.

 

9) ‘Heart of heart’ is called

a) SA node

b) AV node

c) Purkinje fibres

d) Bundle of His

Ans: a) SA node

Because, contraction is initiated by special muscles of heart called sino-atrial node.

 

10) Which one of the following shows correct composition of blood ?

a) Plasma – Blood + Lymphocyte

b) Serum – Blood + Fibrinogen

c) Lymph – Plasma + RBC + WBC

d) Blood – Plasma + RBC+ WBC +Platelets

Ans: d) Blood – Plasma + RBC+ WBC +Platelets

Because, the composition of blood contains plasma, RBCs, WBCs and Platelets.

 

Fill in the blanks

 

1) __________ involves evaporative loss of water from aerial parts.

Ans: Transpiration involves evaporative loss of water from aerial parts.

 

2) Water enters into the root hair cell through __________ membrane.

Ans:Water enters into the root hair cell through osmosis plasma membrane.

 

3) Part of the root that absorbs water from the soil is __________.

Ans: Part of the root that absorbs water from the soil is root.

 

4) Normal blood pressure is __________.

Ans: Normal blood pressure is 120 mm /80 mm Hg.

 

5) The normal human heartbeat rate is about ____________ time per minute.

Ans: The normal human heartbeat rate is about 72-75 time per minute.

 

Match the following

 

Ans:

Section I

1) Symplastic pathway: Plasmodesmata

2) Transpiration: Leaf

3) Osmosis: Pressure gradient

4) Root pressure: pressure in xylem

 

Section II

Leukemia:Blood cancer

Platelets: Thrombocytes

Monocytes: Phagocytes

Leucopenia: decrease in leucocytes

AB blood group: Absence of antibody

O blood group: Absence of antigen

Eosinophil: Allergic condition

Neutrophils: Inflammation

 

State whether True or False. If false write the correct statement

 

1) The phloem is responsible for the translocation of food.

Ans: True

 

2) Plants lose water by the process of transpiration.

Ans: True

 

3) The form of sugar transported through the phloem is glucose.

Ans:False

Correct statement: The form of sugar transported through the phloem is sucrose.

 

4) In apoplastic movement the water travels through the cell membrane and enter the cell.

Ans:False

Correct statement: In the apoplastic movement, the water travels through the intercellular spaces and walls of the cell.

 

5) When guard cells lose water the stoma opens.

Ans:False

Correct statement: When guard cells lose water, the stoma get closed.

 

6) Initiation and stimulation of heart beat take place by nerves.

Ans: True

 

 7) All veins carry deoxygenated blood.

Ans:False

Correct statement: All veins carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood only.

 

8) WBC defend the body from bacterial and viral infections.

Ans: True

 

9) The closure of the mitral and tricuspid valves at the start of the ventricular systole produces the first sound ‘LUBB’.

Ans: True

 

Answer in a word or sentence

1) Name two layered protective covering of human heart.

Ans: The heart is enclosed in a double walled sac called as pericardium.

 

 2) What is the shape of RBC in human blood?

Ans: The RBCs in human blood are biconcave and disc shaped.

 

 3) Why is the colour of the blood red?

Ans: The RBCs gives  red colour to the blood due to presence of respiratory pigment haemoglobin.

 

4) Which kind of cells are found in the lymph?

Ans: Lymphocytes cells are present in the lymph.

 

5) Name the heart valve associated with the major arteries leaving the ventricles.

Ans: The major arteries i.e. pulmonary artery and aorta which leave the heart have semilunar valves.

 

6) Mention the artery which supplies blood to the heart muscle.

Ans: The coronary artery supplies blood to the heart muscles.

 

Short answer questions

 

1) What causes the opening and closing of guard cells of stomata during transpiration?

Ans: The opening and closing of the stomata is due to the change in turgidity of the guard cells. When water enters into the guard cells, they become turgid and stoma open. When the guard cell lose water, it becomes flaccid and the stoma closes.

 

2) What is cohesion?

Ans: The force of attraction between the molecules of the same substance or between the water molecules is called cohesion.

 

3) Trace the pathway followed by water molecules from the time it enters a plant root to the time it escapes into the atmosphere from a leaf.

Ans: Following figure shows the ascent of sap i.e. the pathway followed by water molecules from the time it enters a plant root to the time it escapes into the atmosphere from a leaf.

The upward movement of water and minerals from roots to different plant parts is called ascent of sap which is shown in figure given below.

Fig. Ascent of sap

 

4) What would happen to the leaves of a plant that transpires more water than its absorption in the roots?

Ans: Transpiration is the evaporation of water from aerial parts of the plant mainly through the stomata of leaves. The stomata opens in day time and closes during night, this is due to the change in turgidity of guard cells. When water enters into guard cells it become turgid and stomata get opened. But when guard cells loses water it become flaccid and stomata get closed. Hence, when plant transpires more water than its absorption in the roots then guard cells lose turgidity and stomata will be closed.

 

5) Describe the structure and working of the human heart.

Ans:

  • Heart is the muscular pumping organ which pumps the blood into the blood vessels. Heart is made with the cardiac muscles.
  • The human heart is four chambered with upper two auricles which are thin walled and two lower ventricles which are thick walled.
  • This chambers are separated by septum which helps in preventing the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
  • The two auricles are separated by interatrial septum with left atrium is smaller than right atrium.
  • The right auricle receives the deoxygenated blood through veins superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and pulmonary sinus from all parts of the body.
  • Whereas the left auricle receives the oxygenated blood from lungs through pulmonary veins.
  • The two ventricles forming the lower part of heart are separated by interventricular septum. Both the ventricles are with thick walled, since it has to pump out the blood with force away from the heart. The deoxygenated blood is supplied through left and right arteries to the lungs from the respective side.
  • The left ventricle is longer and narrower as compared to right ventricle.
  • The aorta arises from the left ventricle which supplies oxygenated blood to the all organs of the body.
  • And the blood is supplied to the heart through coronary arteries. The flow of blood in single direction and prevention of its back flow is controlled by heart valves.

 

6) Why is the circulation in man referred to as double circulation?

Ans: Circulation in man is referred as double circulation because blood circulates two times through heart in one complete cycle. In this double circulation the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood does not mix with each other.

There are two types of circulation that are:

1.) Systemic circulation:

Systemic circulation involves circulation of oxygenated blood from left ventricle of heart to the all organs of body and takes return deoxygenated blood to the right atrium.

2.) Pulmonary circulation:

The pulmonary artery takes deoxygenated blood from right ventricle and reaches to the lungs while pulmonary veins collect oxygenated blood from the lungs and provide it to left atrium.

 

7) What are heart sounds? How are they produced?

Ans: The sound of heart is produced due to the rythemic closing and opening of the valves. The closing of bicuspid and tricuspid after starting of ventricular systole produces the first heart sound LUBB which has longer duration.The closing of semilunar valves at the end of ventricular systole cause to produce the second sound of heart called as DUPP and it has a shorter duration.

 

8) What is the importance of valves in the heart?

Ans: The valves of heart are muscular which helps to regulate the blood in single direction and prevent back flow of blood also. There are three valves of human heart that are left atrioventricular valve, right atrioventricular valve and semilunar valve.

 

9) Who discovered Rh factor? Why was it named so?

Ans: Rh factor was discovered by Landsteiner and Weiner in 1940. It was discovered in Rhesus monkey and hence named it as Rh factor. The RBCs surface contains antigen for Rh factor. Rh+ persons have the antigen on the surface of RBCs while the Rh- persons do not have the antigen on the surface of RBCs.

 

10) How are arteries and veins structurally different from one another?

Ans: The arteries and vey are structurally different from one another by following aspects.

Arteries:

  • They are distributing vessels and pink in colour.
  • They are located deeply and blood flows through them with high pressure.
  • The walls of arteries are thick, strong and elastic. Except pulmonary artery all arteries carries oxygenated blood only.
  • Internal valves are absent in arteries.

Veins:

  • Veins are collecting vessels and red in colour.
  • Veins are superficial in location and blood flows through them with low pressure.
  • The walls of veins are thin, weak and non-elastic.
  • Except pulmonary vein all veins carries deoxygenated blood only.
  • Internal valves are present in veins.

 

11) Why is the Sinoatrial node called the pacemaker of heart?

Ans: The human heart is myogenic in nature and contraction is started by particular portion of the heart muscle which is called sino-atrial node. Sino-atrial node acts as pacemaker of the heart because it has capacity to initiate impulse which stimulates the heart to contract.

 

12) Differentiate between systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation.

Ans:

Systemic circulation:

  • It involves the circulation of blood from left ventricle of heart to the various parts of body.
  • And deoxygenated blood returns to the right atrium in systemic circulation.
  • In systemic circulation aorta carries the oxygenated blood to the all organs of the body.

Pulmonary circulation:

  • Pulmonary circulation starts in right ventricle.
  • Pulmonary artery which arises from right ventricle and reaches to the lungs with deoxygenated blood.
  • Whereas pulmonary vein carries oxygenated blood from lungs and supplies it to the left atrium.

 

13) The complete events of cardiac cycle last for 0.8 sec. What is the timing for each event? 

Ans: The sequence of events which occurs from starting to the completion of one heart beat is called as cardiac cycle. Each cardiac cycle lasts for 0.8 seconds which involves the following events.

1.) Atrial systole: It involves contraction of auricles (0.1sec)

2.) Ventricular systole: It involves contraction of ventricles (0.3 sec)

3.) Ventricular diastole: It involves the relaxation of ventricles (0.4sec)

 

VII. Give reasons for the following statements

 

1) Minerals cannot be passively absorbed by the roots.

Ans:

  • Plants depends on minerals from soil for their nutrition.
  • All minerals cannot be absorbed passively because minerals are present in the soil in the form of charged particles which cannot move across the cell membrane.
  • Also the concentration of minerals in the soil is mainly lower than the concentration of minerals in the root.
  • Therefore, most minerals enters the root by active absorption.

 

2) Guard cells are responsible for opening and closing of stomata.

Ans:

  • The opening and closing of stomata is due to the change in turgidity of the guard cells. The stomata are opened in day time and closes during night time.
  • When water enters the guard cells they become more turgid and stomata get opened.
  • When guard cells loses water it causes flaccidity and stoma get closed.
  • Due to this change in turgidity of guard cells the stomata get opened in day time and closes during night time.

 

3) The movement of substances in the phloem can be in any direction.

Ans:

  • Phloem transports food i.e. sucrose form source to sink. The source synthesize the food i.e. leaf and sink is the part which requires food or stores food.
  • But this source and sink may reversed depending on season or the need of plant.
  • Due to the variation in source-sink relationship the direction of movement in the phloem may be upward or downward which means bidirectional.

4) Minerals in the plants are not lost when the leaf falls.

Ans: Minerals in the plant are not lost when leaf falls because minerals are remobilsed from older falling leaves to younger leaves. The elements like sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium are easily mobilised while elements like calcium are not remobilsed. Small amount of material exchange takes place between xylem and phloem.

 

5) The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than the right auricles.

Ans: The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than the right auricles because the ventricles have to pump out the blood with a force to The pulmonary trunk arises from right ventricle bifurcates to form right and left pulmonary arteries.

 

6) Mature RBC in mammals do not have cell organelles.

Ans: Matured mammalians RBCs do not have cell organelles and nucleus due to which more hemoglobin is stored which increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the cell. The bi concave shape increases surface area for oxygen binding, RBCs transport oxygen to all tissue due to the absence of mitochondria and RBCs acquires more flexibility to move through narrower capillaries due to the endoplasmic reticulum.

 

VII. Give reasons for the following statements

 

1) Minerals cannot be passively absorbed by the roots.

Ans:        

  • Plants depends on minerals from soil for their nutrition.
  • All minerals cannot be absorbed passively because minerals are present in the soil in the form of charged particles which cannot move across the cell membrane.
  • Also the concentration of minerals in the soil is mainly lower than the concentration of minerals in the root.
  • Therefore, most minerals enters the root by active absorption.

 

2) Guard cells are responsible for opening and closing of stomata.

Ans:

  • The opening and closing of stomata is due to the change in turgidity of the guard cells. The stomata are opened in day time and closes during night time.
  • When water enters the guard cells they become more turgid and stomata get opened.
  • When guard cells loses water it causes flaccidity and stoma get closed.
  • Due to this change in turgidity of guard cells the stomata get opened in day time and closes during night time.

 

3) The movement of substances in the phloem can be in any direction.

Ans:

  • Phloem transports food i.e. sucrose form source to sink. The source synthesize the food i.e. leaf and sink is the part which requires food or stores food.
  • But this source and sink may reversed depending on season or the need of plant.
  • Due to the variation in source-sink relationship the direction of movement in the phloem may be upward or downward which means bidirectional.

 

4) Minerals in the plants are not lost when the leaf falls.

Ans: Minerals in the plant are not lost when leaf falls because minerals are remobilsed from older falling leaves to younger leaves. The elements like sulphur, phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium are easily mobilised while elements like calcium are not remobilsed. Small amount of material exchange takes place between xylem and phloem.

 

5) The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than the right auricles.

Ans: The walls of the right ventricle are thicker than the right auricles because the ventricles have to pump out the blood with a force to The pulmonary trunk arises from right ventricle bifurcates to form right and left pulmonary arteries.

 

6) Mature RBC in mammals do not have cell organelles.

Ans: Matured mammalians RBCs do not have cell organelles and nucleus due to which more hemoglobin is stored which increases the oxygen carrying capacity of the cell. The bi concave shape increases surface area for oxygen binding, RBCs transport oxygen to all tissue due to the absence of mitochondria and RBCs acquires more flexibility to move through narrower capillaries due to the endoplasmic reticulum.

 

VIII. Long answer questions

 

1) How do plants absorb water? Explain.

Ans:

  • There are millions of root hairs on the tip of the root which absorbs water and minerals by the process of diffusion. Root walls are thin walled, slender extension of epidermal cell which increases the surface area of absorption.
  • Once the water enters the root hairs, the concentration of water molecules in the root hair cell becomes more than the cortex.
  • In this way water water moves from root hair to the cortical cells by the process of osmosis and finally reaches the xylem, from which water is supplied to the stem and leaves.

Fig. Root tip with root hairs

 

`Fig. TS of root showing movement of water from soil to xylem

 

2) What is transpiration? Give the importance of transpiration.

Ans:

  • The transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of plant body especially through the stomata in leaves. Stomata are opened in day time and closes during night.
  • Transpiration depends on temperature, light, humidity and wind speed.
  • The internal factors affecting transpiration are number and distribution of stomata, percentage of open stomata, and water status of the plant and canopy structure.
  • The importance of the transpiration is as follows.
  • It creates transpirational pull to supply water and supplies water for photosynthesis.
  • It transports minerals from soil to all parts of the plant body.
  • It cools the leaves surface by the process of evaporation.
  • Transpiration keeps the cells turgid and due to shape of leaves is maintained.

 

3) Why are leucocytes classified as granulocytes and agranulocytes? Name each cell and mention its functions.

Ans: WBCs i.e white blood corpuscles are also called as leucocytes are colourless and do not contain hemoglobin with nucleated cells. They are located in bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. WBCs are classified as follows.

1.) Granulocytes:

  • It contains granules in their cytoplasm. They are having nucleus which is irregular or lobed. The granulocytes are of three types namely neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils.
  • Neutrophils forms the 60-65% of the total leucocytes. Their number increases during infection and inflammation.
  • Eosinophils constitute 2-3% of total leucocytes and their number increases during condition of allergy and parasitic infections. It makes detoxification of toxins.
  • Basophils forms 0.5-1% of total leucocytes. Basophils releases chemicals during process of inflammation.

 

2.) Agranulocytes:

  • They do not contain granules in the cytoplasm of the cell.
  • Agranulocytes are of two types namely lymphocytes and monocytes.
  • Lymphocytes forms 20-25% of the total leucocytes.
  • They produce antibodies during bacterial and viral infections.
  • Monocytes forms 5-6% of total leucocytes.
  • Monocytes are phagocytic and can engulf bacteria.

 

4) Differentiate between systole and diastole e. Explain the conduction of heart beat.

Ans: Systole is the contraction of heart and diastole is the relaxation of heart.

Initiation and conduction of heart beat:

  • One complete systole and diastole of atrium and ventricle of heart is called heartbeat. Normally, heart beats 72-75 beats per minute.
  • The nature of human heart is myogenic. Contraction is initiated by heart muscle sino-atrial node which is located in the wall of right atrium where superior vena cava opens. The SA node is broadering at top and tappers below which is made from thin fibers.
  • SA node acts as the pacemaker of the heart because it has capacity to initiate impulse which stimulates heart muscles to contract. The impulse initiated by SA node spreads over left and right atrial walls forcing the blood through atrioventricular valves into the ventricles as a wave of contraction.
  • After reaching to AV node, and stimulates to emit impulse of contraction which spreads over ventricular muscle through the atrioventricular bundle and purkinje fibers.
  • When heart beats the blood is pushed into the arteries. The expansion of artery at every time when blood is forced into it is called as pulse.
  • The normal pulse rate is 70-90 per minute.

 

5) Enumerate the functions of blood.

Ans: The following are the functions of blood.

  • It helps in transporting respiratory gases i.e. oxygen and carbon dioxide.
  • It also transport digested food materials to all parts of the body cell.
  • It helps in transport of harmones and nitrogenous excreatary products like ammonia, urea and uric acid.
  • It involves in protection of body and defense against diseases.
  • It regulates pH and body temperature, acts as a buffer.
  • It helps to maintain proper water balance in the body.

 

Assertion and Reasoning Direction:

 

In each of the following questions a statement of assertion (A) is given and a corresponding statement of reason (R) is given just below it. Mark the correct statement as.

If both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A

If both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A

A is true but R is false d. Both A and R are false

 

Assertion: RBC plays an important role in the transport of respiratory gases.

Reason: RBC do not have cell organelles and nucleus.

Ans: a. If both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A

 

Assertion: Persons with AB blood group are called a universal recipients, because they can receive blood from all groups.

Reason: Antibodies are absent in persons with AB blood group.

Ans: a. If both A and R are true and R is correct explanation of A

 

Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

 

1) When any dry plant material is kept in water, they swell up. Name and define the phenomenon involved in this change.

Ans:

  • When the dry plant material is kept in water, it swell up due to the phenomenon of imbibition.
  • Imbibition is the type of diffusion which occurs when water is absorbed by that material and causes to swell up i.e. increases their volume.
  • For example: if we keep seeds in water for some time then we see that they get swelled and this is due to imbibition.
  • If there is no process of imbibition then seedling cannot be able to emerge out from the soil.

 

2) Why are the walls of the left ventricle thicker than the other chambers of the heart?

Ans:

  • The walls of the left ventricle are thicker than the other chambers of the heart because the ventricles have to pump out the blood with a force away from the heart.
  • The pulmonary trunk arises from right ventricle bifurcates to form right and left pulmonary arteries.

 

 3) Doctors use stethoscope to hear the sound of the heart. Why?

Ans: Because stethoscope is used to detect the sound produced by internal organs of the human body. By placing stethoscope on the chest the heart sound will be heard. It is the most useful diagnostic tool used mainly for identifying and localising health problems and to diagnose disease.

 

4) How does the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein differ in their function when compared to a normal artery and vein?

Ans:

  • The pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein differs in their function when compared to normal artery and vein because of the following reasons.
  • All arteries carry oxygenated blood except pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
  • All veins carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein which carries oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart.

 

5) Transpiration is a necessary evil in plants. Explain.

Ans:

  • Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the aerial parts of the plant body mainly through stomata in the leaves. The process of transpiration is necessary evil in plants because more loss of water from the plants make it wilt and plant become totally dried and occurs death of plant.
  • But transpiration is most significant to the plants because of the following aspects.
  • It creates transpirational pull for transport of water.
  • It supplies water for photosynthesis.
  • It helps in transporting minerals from soil to the all parts of plant body.
  • It cools the surface of leaves by evaporating water from it.
  • It helps in making cells turgid which maintains their shape.

 

Dear Student, I appreciate your efforts and hard work that you all had put in. Thank you for being concerned with us and I wish you for your continued success. 

Updated: June 21, 2021 — 12:36 pm

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