Rajasthan Board Class 10 Science Chapter 4 Solution Immunity and Blood Groups RBSE Class 10 Science Solution for Chapter 4
Objective type question
(1.) Cells used in the immune system are not found in—–
a) Bone marrow
d) Lymph nodes
Ans –c) stomach
(2.) Antigen determinants are found in which of the following?
b) IgG antibody
c) IgM antibody
d) Plasma cells
(3.) The plasma cells is the transformed from of which of the following?
a) B Lymphocyte cell
b) T lymphocyte cell
d) Both a) and c)
(4.) The first antibody produced is?
(5. ) Which antibody is found in mohter’s milk?
ans- d) IgA
(6.) which of the following cells is not found in the blood?
a) Red blood cells
b) White blood cells
c) B Lymphocytic cells
d) Epithelial cells
Ans- d) epithelial cells
(7.) Who classified blood in different groups?
a) Louis Pasteur
b) Karl landstriner
c) Robert Koch
d) Edwaed jenner
Ans- b) karl landstriner
(8.) Universal donor blood group
Ans- c) O
(9.) Major reasons for erythroblastosis foetalisis
a) Blood transfusion in children
b) Rh Incomatibility
c) ABO Incompatibility
d) Both a) and c)
Ans-b) Rh Incomatibility
(10.) Which of the following is used in allogeneic transfusion?
a) The stored blood collected from the person himdelf
b) The stored blood collected frm some other person
c) The stored blood collected from sheep
d) Both a) and b)
Ans- a) the stored blood is collected form the person himself.
(11.) Which of the diseases do not occur due to the carelessness obsereved during blood during transformation?
a) Hepatitis B
c) Blood hemolysis
d) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Ans- b) malaria
(12.) Which among the following is not application of Blood Group inheritance?
a) Treatment of hemophilia
b) Treatment of malaria
c) Treatment of dengue
d) Both b) and c)
Ans- d) both b) and c)
(13.) Which of the following blood group results from homozygous recessive gene interaction?
a) A Blood Group
b) B Blood group
c) O Blood group
d) AAB blood group
Ans-c) O blood group
(14.) Which day is celebrated as organ donation day in India?
a) 13th September
b) 13th august
c) 13th may
d) 13th june
Ans- b) 13th august
(15.) The number of organ donorsin India(per ten lakh)
Very short type questions
(16.) How many different types of defense mechanisms are found in humans ?
(17.) How many different types of antibodies are found in humans?
Ans- there are five types of antibodies are found in humans.
(18.) What should be the minimum molecular weight of an antigen?
Ans- 6000 daltons or more.
(19.) Which type of proteins are antibodies?
Ans- Gamma globulin are antibodies protines.
(20.) Which antibody can cross placenta to reach the embryo?
Ans- IgG is only the antibody cross placenta to reach the embryo.
(21.) Write the name of the antibody found on the surface of the mast cell.
Ans- IgE found surface on the mast cell.
(22.) Which cells found in the blood are involved in gaseous exchanges?
Ans-Red blood cells.
(23.) Which scientist classified the blood?
Ans- Karl Landsteiner.
(24.) Which blood group contains both A and B antigens?
Ans- blood group AB
(25.) Which blood is universal blood donor?
Ans- blood group O
(26.) What is percentage of Rh positive persons in the world?
(27.) Which Rh factor is most important?
Ans- Rh D
(28.) Who was the first person to perform blood transfusion?
Ans- Dr. Jene-Baptiste Denys.
(29.) What do you mean by Allogeneic Transfusion?
Ans-In this transfusion blood is collected from another person and used.
(30.) Write down the name of the allels which controls the blood groups.
Ans- IA ,IB,I or I are controls the blood groups.
(31.) When does Organ Donation Day celebrated in India?
Ans- 13th August
(32.) Write the name of two persons who have recently donated their body.
Ans- Dr. Vishnu prabhakar and Shri Nana Deshmukh
Short type questions.
(33.) Define antibodies.
Ans- antibodies are the proteins which are produced as result of interaction of antigens with the B cells present in the body and can specifically get coupled with the particular antigen.
(34.) What are antigenic determinant?
Ans- the whole Molecule of the antigen does not interact with the antibody rather only a specific part of it can join with the antibody molecule, this part of antigen is called as Antigenic Determinant or Epitope.
(35.) What is the function of Hinge in an Antibody?
Ans- hinge region is the flexible permits the variable portion of the Antibody to adjust according to the size of the antigen and react with it.
(36.) What is blood?
Ans- Blood is a fluidic living tissue which is thick, stickly and red cloured and flows into the blood vessels.
(37.) Explain ABO blood grouping.
Ans- ABO blood group- A type blood has A antigen on the surface of red blood cells while B type blood has B antigen on the surface of red blood cells AB type blood has both A and B antigen on the surface of red blood cells. Red blood corpuscles of O type blood is devoid of the A and B antigens.
(38.) What is Rh factor? Explain its significance.
Ans- Rh factor is a protein of about 417 amino acids. Five different types of Rh factors are found in human body RhD, RhE, Rh.e, RhC, and Rhc are found.
Significance- for blood group donation Rh factor is very important
During the pregnancy Rh factor is important.
(39.) What is blood donation? Explain.
Ans- the donation of blood from one person to another person is called blood donation. For donation of the reciver person have the same blood group as donor person. Example if the donor person have blood group A so it donate blood to person having same blood group that is A. similarly with other group.the blood group O is the universal donor and the blood group AB is the universal acceptor.
(40.) Write precautions to be observed during the blood donation.
Ans- a) matching ABO antigen in the blood of the patient and the donor.
b) testing donor’s blood for the absence of any pathogen or harmful substance.
c) in every circumstance, protecting the collected blood from contamination.
d) blood collection and transfusion must essentially be carried out in the presence of a physician.
(41.) Explain the need of Organ Donation.
Ans- Donation of a tissue or an organ to another person by a living or dead person is called Organ Donation. Organ donation is generally carried out only after the donor’s death. About 50 needy people can be helped from an inanimate body. Hence body donation is very important for organ donation. After our death donation of our eyes,kidneys, liver, and other organ could bring happiness in the life of needy person. This type of donation category is considered as the best and most pure donation. Therefore the organ and body donation is very great and helpful work.
(42.) Explain the gene type’s responsible for ABO blood groups.
Ans- the ABO blood group having the A,B antigens on their surface. The blood group have A antigen on surface of RBCs and B have B antigen on surface of RBCs O blood group have both antigens of A and B blood group.
|Blood group||Genotype of the antigen|
|A||I^I^ or I^i|
|IBIB or IBi|
Essay type questions.
(43.) Explain structure of antibodies.
Ans- antibodies are also called as Immunoglobulin’s(Ig).they are Gamma Globulin proteins which is synthesized by the plasma cells and are found in the blood and other body fluids.
Structure – antibody has a shape similar to the Y alphabet of English. It is composed of ofur structural units. There are two heavy and large(H) and two light and small(L) polypeptide chain. One heavy and light chains together forms HL dimer. Two such (HL) dimer together forms an Antibody. This is made up of two homogeneous halves. The H and L chain found each of the halves are also joined with disulfide bonds. Each heavy chin is made up of 440 amino acids while each L chain is made up of 220 amino acids. Each chain have two types- A) variable portion- reacts with the antigen and also found on the NH2 end of the chain. B) constant portion- this portion is situated at the COOH end of the chin and is also called as Fc portion.the point of flexible and is know as Hinge region.
(44.) Explain Erythroblastosis fetalis.
Ans- it is the type of disease. During pregnancy, mother is Rh negative and the foetus s Rh positive, special attention required at the time of childbirth.through placenta Rh antibodies present in mothers blood is mixes with the circulating foetal blood. They rects with the Rh proteins present in the surface of the foetal RBCs. These antibodies destroyed the RBCs through Agglutinantion and leads to hemagglutination . this may lead to the death of the foetus in the mothers womb. Even if the infact survives, he becomes very weak and generally suffers from hepatitis. This disease is called as Erythroblastosis fetails. For the treatment of this disease, mother is vaccinated with anti IgG antibodies within 24 hours of the first delivery. This is called Rhogam Antibodies.
(45.) How does the process of blood transfusion carried out?
Ans- blood transfusion is a scientific process which is accomplished as follows-
A) Blood collection- before the process of blood collection donor is examined medically. After that blood from the donor s collected in secial sterilized pouches containing anticoagulants cannula of sutiable capacity is used for blood collection. The collected blood is kept in a refrigerator. This prevents the bacterial growth and down regulates the celluar metabolism in the blood. The stored blood is subjected to different tests like blood group Rh factor ,hepatitis B, hepatitis C. HIV.
B) Transfusion- prior to transfusion the patients blood is matched with the blood of the donor. Transfusion can only be carried out after this process. The collected blood is brought out of the storage area just 30 min before the start of the transfusion process. Blood is transfused only through intravenous mode. This is a four hour long procedure which is mediated by the help of a cannula. Medicines are given by the doctor to prevent the transfusion related rections like fever,chill,pain,cyanosis and others.this is the process.
(46.) What is Organ Donation ? explain its important.
Ans- Donation of a tissue or an organ to another person by a liver or dead is called Organ Donation.
Importance- organ donation is generally carried our only after the donors death. About 50 needy people can be helped from an inanimate body. With this many peoples change their organs like kidneys,liver,heart and transplant new organs which donated by donors.organ donation and body donation is the great and wonderful work. All of us should our duty to donate blood , organs, and body after death so that by this sanctified work our need brothers and sisters can live a comfortable and graceful life.
(47.) Explain the importance of blood group hereditary.
Ans- many different blood types found in humans. They are addressed as ABO blood group. The expression of blood in a person is dependent on the interaction between any two alleles. Based on the presence of type of allels six gene formats of the blood are found in humans.
There are many applications of blood group inheritance
. it is mostly used to solve the paternal disputes, in carrying out successful blood transfusions, in the treatment of neonatal blood hemolysis and hereditary disorders like hemophilia etc.
This are the various importance of the blood group hereditary.