NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 Solution – Modern World – II
NIOS Class 10 Social Science Solution Chapter 4 Modern World – II. NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Class 10 Science Notes.
NIOS Class 10 Social Science Chapter 4 Solution
Question Answer, Solution, Notes
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.1
1.) Which two natural resources played an important role in the birth of Industrial
Revolution in England?
2.) How the development in the means of transport and communication assisted the merchants?
3.) What were the reason to employ children in coal mines and factories?
4.) Match the column:
INTEXT QUESTIONS 4.2
1.) Define Imperialism.
2.) Mention two advantages of the growth of transportation in the colonies which
helped in the spread of Imperialism.
3.) What was the Slave Trade?
4.) Choose the right answer:
(a) Which of the following was known as the Dark Continent?
(i) Africa (ii) Asia (iii) Europe
(b) Meiji Restoration took place in which country?
(i) Cambodia (ii) Sri Lanka (iii) Japan
(c) Opium War was fought in?
(i) India (ii) China (iii) Burma
(d) Which was not a French colony?
(i) Vietnam (ii) Morocco (iii) Kenya
INTEXT QUESTION 4.3
1. Name at least four Balkan states.
2. Which countries formed the Triple Alliance?
3. Give at least three causes of World War I.
4. Name two countries which adopted dictatorial governments after 1920.
5. What was the main cause of the Great Depression of 1929?
6. When and where the UN was formally constituted?
1. How the inventions in the textile industry revolutionised the production of cotton
2. What were the various factors – political, economic, geographical and technological
– which contributed to industrialisation in England?
3. State both the advantages and the disadvantages in the society with the coming
of the Industrial Revolution.
4. Why did the industrialised countries start fighting amongst themselves for the
control of the areas where Industrial Revolution had not taken place?
5. What made Japan join the race for colonies?
6. Mention both the positive and the negative effects of Imperialism on the colonies.
7. Examine the consequences of World War I.
8. How did the Appeasement Policy by the western powers led to the rise of
Fascism in Italy and Nazism in Germany?
9. Describe the course of events during World War II.
10. What are the main objectives of the United Nations?
11. Mark the following places on the given outline map of the world:
(a) Any two colonies each of Britain and France.
(b) The Triple Allies and the Triple Entente of World War I.
(c) The Allies and the Axis Powers of World War II.
IN text questions 4.1
1)Two natural resources which played an important role in the birth of Industrial Revolution in England are Coal and Iron.
2) The merchants were provided with a faster and reliable means of transportation of raw materials and factory made products to their destination, speeding up business transactions. By this way the development in the means of transport and communication assisted the merchants.
3) The reasons to employ children in coal mines and factoriesbecause their small size helped them move better in the horizontal and narrow coal mines. They were paid very low wages compared to older men and hence were preferred in factories.
4) (a) iii (b) v (c) i (d) ii
IN text questions 4.2
1)Imperialism is defined as the practice of extending control or rule over the political and economic life of another country.
2)Two advantages of the growth of transportation in the colonies which helped in the spread of Imperialism were as follows:-
(a) It made easier the flow of goods to and from the colonies to the imperial country.
(b) Troops could be easily sent to colonies and keep them under control. 3)Slave Trade is the importing of people from Africa by the Europeans to work as slaves on their plantations in their colonies in America.
4) (a) i (b) iii (c) ii (d) iii
IN text questions 4.3
1)Four Balkan states were Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, and Montenegro.
2)Triple Alliance were Germany, Austria and Italy.
3) The three main causes of World War I were as follows:
(a) The rise of Germany as an industrial nation led to its growing need for raw materials, hence imperialist rivalry for colonies began with England and France.
(b) System of Alliances divided Europe into two hostile camps – Triple Alliance and Triple Entente – leading to tension and conflicts.
(c) The resurgence of nationalism in the Balkan States known as the Pan Slav Movement. People now wanted to be independent and remain under foreign control.
4) Italy and Germany.
5)The main cause of the Great Depression of 1929 was the overproduction resulted in the declining prices of commodities, leading to the fall in share prices. The banks closed down and people lost their lifelong savings.
6) The United Nations was constituted on 24 October 1945 at a conference held in San Francisco, USA.
1) In 1733 John Kay’s invented the Flying Shuttle which simplified the process of weaving cloth and which increased the output four times. James Hargreaves invented a hand powered spinning wheel, the Spinning Jenny, to create multiple spools of thread at once. After the invention of the Spinning Jenny, cotton textiles became the key industry of this period. In 1779, Samuel Crompton invented the ‘Spinning Mule’ while Edmond Cartwright made the first water driven powered loom. The textile industry stimulated other industries such as dying, bleaching, and printing.
2) The various factors of political, economic, geographical and technological which contributed to industrialization in England were as follows:-
a) In the 18th century came the Industrial Revolution. It brought social and economic changes that marked the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society.
b) Changes in the social and the economic structure took place as inventions and new technology created the factory system of large-scale machine production and greater economic specialisation.
c) Rich merchants installed new machineries, brought raw materials and employed workers on fixed wages to make machine made goods.
d) The presence of large quantities of coal and iron proved a decisive factor in Britain’s rapid industrial development.
e) By 1850, the Revolution had been accomplished with industries becoming a dominant factor in British life. The effect of the Industrial Revolution was felt worldwide. France after 1830, Germany after 1850 and U.S. after the Civil War soon started industrialisation.
f) Between 1760 to1830, the British Parliament passed nearly 1000 Enclosure Acts by which the lands which had earlier belonged to the community were combined into larger areas.
g) The favourable political conditions in England further helped in the growth of the Industrial Revolution.
3) The advantages and the disadvantages in the society with the coming of the Industrial Revolution are given below:-
a) There was a tremendous increase in production which resulted in lower cost of goods.
b) The invention of telegraph and telephone made it possible to communicate anywhere in the world instantly.
c) Faster means of transportation and communication speeding up business transactions, contacts between army units, colonies, countries and even common people.
d) Employability rate increased.
e) A new source of wealth rose from the ownership of factories and machinery.
a) Forced the workers to work for long hours on low wages.A movement began to save the workers from the injustices of the factory system.Women and children were paid very low wages.
4) The industrialised countries started fighting amongst themselves for the control of the areas where Industrial Revolution had not taken place because Industrial revolution brought social and economic changes that marked the transition from a stable agricultural and commercial society to a modern industrial society.
Changes in the social and the economic structure took place as inventions and new technology created the factory system of large-scale machine production and greater economic specialisation. After Britain Belgium, France, Germany revolutionised and impacted the whole world.
5) The Meiji Restoration began in 1868 with an era of ‘enlightened rule’ which transformed Japan from a closed feudal society to the first industrialised nation. In 1871, a group of Japanese politicians toured Europe and US. Japan framed a state led industrialisation policy. In 1877, the Bank of Japan was founded. Many steel and textile factories were set up, education was popularised and Japanese students were sent to study in the West. By the year 1905, under the slogan of ‘Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Military’, Japan rose as a formidable industrial and military nation. These reasons made Japan to join the race for colonies.
6) The positive and the negative effects of Imperialism on the colonies were given below:-
a) The introduction of transportation and communication like railway lines, canals, telegraphs and telephones.
b) It also led to the growth of political consciousness and the feeling of nationalism in the colonies.
c) It led to development in modern education and science which helped the nations to develop after they gained their independence.
a) The indigenous industries were ruined and the natural resources ruthlessly exploited.
b) The whole of Africa, except for Liberia and Ethiopia, was divided amongst the European nations.
c) Their policy of racial discrimination made the people lose their self-respect as well as their confidence.
7) World War I was one of the most disastrous and frightening events the world had witnessed. The consequences of it are as follows:-
a) There was a large scale damage of property in most of the European countries.
b) A million people including innocent civilians lost their lives.
c) The economy of most of the countries was shattered resulting in social tension, unemployment and poverty.
d) The Allies signed different treaties with the defeated powers. The most important of them were the Treaty of Versailles signed with Germany, the Treaty of St. Germain with Austria and the Treaty of Serves with Turkey.
e) The war and the peace treaties transformed the political map of the world, particularly Europe.
f) The end of the war saw the end of European supremacy and emergence of USSR and USA as major powers.
8) The dictatorship introduced in Italy by Mussolini is referred to as Fascism. The term Fascism is derived from Latin word fasces which stood for ‘symbols of authority’. And The German version of Fascism is known as Nazism. It was established by Adolf Hitler.
9) The course of events which had taken place during World War II are given below:-
a) The fascist countries wanted to re-divide the world for imperialist gains and came into conflict with the established power.
b) Germany was politically, militarily and economically shattered by the Treaty of Versailles.
c) Both the Fascist and Nazi Parties glorified war and promised to their people that they would bring back the lost glory of their countries through war.
d) Germany annexed Rhineland in 1936, Austria in 1938 and Czechoslovakia in 1938, while Italy attacked Ethiopia. This resulted in social tension and conflicts among European nations.
e) Japan was given a free hand to expand control in Asia and the region of the Pacific while Germany and Italy would have a free hand in Europe.
f) The success of the Soviet Union alarmed the Western Powers.
g) German army which was restricted to 100,000 soldiers after World War I increased her strength to 800,000 soldiers without any protest from the western powers.
h) In 1937, Civil War began in Spain between the popularly elected Government and the fascist leader under General Franco.
i) The Munich Pact was signed by them in 1938, allowing Germany to annex Sudetenland in the Northern part of Czechoslovakia.
j) The scene was set for World War II when Germany attacked Poland on 1September 1939. Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939.
10) The main objectives of the United Nations are as follows:-
a) To maintain international peace and security.
b) To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality and achieve international cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems.
c) To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world.
d) To act as a common platform for harmonising the activities of various nations for the attainment of the objectives of the UN.