NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 22 Solution

NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 22 Solution – Life Processes-1 Nutrition, Transportation, Respiration And Excretion

NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Solution Chapter 22 Life Processes-1 Nutrition, Transportation, Respiration And Excretion. NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 22 Question Answers Download PDF. NIOS Class 10 Science Notes.

NIOS Class 10 Science & Technology Chapter 22 Solution

Board NIOS
Class 10th (Secondary)
Subject                                                Science and Technology (222)
Topic Question Answer, Solution, Notes


CHAPTER: – 22.

(Life Processes-1 Nutrition, Transportation, Respiration And Excretion)



1) Give two examples of autotrophs. Why do you call them so?

Ans: – Example of autotrophs are algae, bacteria.

As this organism make their food by themselves through photosynthesis these are called autotroph.

2 )Why are autotrophs termed ‘producers’ of food chain?

Ans: – As this autotroph produced food by themselves taking the sunlight thus are called producer.

4) The parasitic and saprotrophic modes of nutrition do not need the three processes required by holozoic animals. Which processes are these?

Ans: – Ingested by digestion.

5)Classify the following as saprotrophs or parasites: leech, yeast, head louse, mushroom.

Ans: –  Saprophytes are yeast and mushroom, the parasite are leech and head louse.



1)In two sentences, justify the term photosynthesis (photo+ synthesis).

Ans: – The photosynthesis process is the process where light is taken from sun which is known as photo and the chemical process is happen in leaves which know as synthesis.

2)What makes plants look green? What does the green pigment of plants do for them?

Ans: – The chlorophyll makes the plants green.

This green pigment of the plant helps in photosynthesis process.

3) Glucose and starch are two food substances manufactured in the plants. Which one is formed during photosynthesis and in which form is it stored?

Ans: –The starch which is stored in the plant helps in photosynthesis.

4) What role does stomata play in photosynthesis?

Ans: – The stroma in a plant is known as the kitchen of the cell as the whole process of the photosynthesis is going on this.




1)why should raw vegetables and fruits be a regular item in lunch/dinner?

Ans: – In raw vegetables and fruits there are cellulose present which helps from the constipation.

2)I ate one gram of starchy food and you ate one gram of fatty food—who shall get more energy you or me?

Ans: – As in fatty food has more calorific value as compared to starchy food you will get more energy.

3)What is common between vitamins A and D and B and C to group them together?

Ans: – only vitamin B and C are soluble in water and other are soluble in fat



1) Name the enzyme secreted by stomach that converts proteins into peptones.

Ans: –The enzymes which secreted from stomach and converts into peptones is known as pepsin.

2) What is the movement of muscles of oesophagus that pushes down food called?

Ans: –  The movement which pushes down the food from muscles is known as the peristaltic movement.

3) In which part of the alimentary canal do the pancreas and liver pour their secretions?

Ans: – In small intestine the pancreas and the liver pour secretions.

4) Name the enzymes present in the pancreatic juice that digests proteins, carbohydrates and fats.

Ans: – Trypsin digests proteins and Amylase digest carbohydrates whereas Lipase digests fats.

5) Name the acid that takes part in digestion process.

Ans: – The acid which takes part in digestion is known as HCl.



1) Give the full form of PEM and name the diseases due to PEM.

Ans: – The full form of PEM is protein energy malnutrition and the disease due to PEM is marasmus.

2)If the diet continuously lacks in vitamin A, which disease may be caused?

Ans: – The disease which will be if there is deficiency of vitamin A is night blindness.

3)Why does our government frequently advertise the necessity of consuming iodised salt?

Ans: –  As the element iodine is present in the iodised salt so the government frequently advertise the necessary of taking it for the protection of iodine deficiency disease.




1) Why is a system of transportation/circulation necessary for organisms?

Ans: – The transportation or circulation is necessary for the organisms because of the oxygen transportation.

2) Which kind of blood vessels are responsible for the exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases between blood and tissues?

Ans: –The capillaries are responsible for the exchange of nutrients and respiratory gases between the bloods and tissue.

3) What is so special about heart that it continues beating without getting fatigued?

Ans: – As valves prevent themixing of oxygenated blood withthe carbon dioxide laden blood the heart is continues beating without fatigue.




1) Which blood cells would you categorise as (i) transporters of oxygen and carbon-dioxide (ii) enemies of germs that enter the body.

Ans: –The red blood cell is called the transporter of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

The white blood cell is enemies of germs that enter the body.

2) Sheen has blood group O+ and Veena has AB+. Whose blood would be useful if it has to be transfused into an accident victim of unknown blood group and why?

Ans: –  As we know that the blood group O is the universal donor so, sheen will give the blood to the victim.

3) What makes RBC s look red? What is the role of this pigment?

Ans: – The haemoglobin makes the RBC red.

This pigment helps to transfer the oxygen from the lungs to body and reverse.

4) In which function is lymph similar to blood?

Ans: –  This lymph similar to the blood as both prevent themfrom the infection.




1) Why does the trachea not deflate (collapse) during exhalation?

Ans: – The trachea not deflate or collapse during the exhalation because of the cartilage which restricted it from deflate.

2) The sequence of parts of human respiratory are jumbled. Place them in theright order. Nasal cavity, trachea, pharynx, internal nostrils, bronchi, lungs.

Ans: –

3)You have learnt in Physics that when volume increases, pressure decreases. How does this principle find a place in the process of breathing?

Ans: – This type of phenomenal we will face when we inhale or exhale the gases for the respiratory activity.

4) Once oxygen reaches cells, which of its organelles takes over respiration?

Ans: –The mitochondria take over the respiration when the oxygen reaches cell.

5) Why are the alveoli supplied with capillaries?

Ans: – The alveoli are the supplier of oxygen to the body and gives out the carbon dioxide gases.




1) Name the organ of the excretory system, which stores urine before its removal from the body.

Ans: – The urinary bladder stores the urine before its removal from the body.


2) Draw a rough diagram of the nephron and label only the part where filtration occurs?

Ans: –


3) What happens to the useful substances that move into the glomerulus along with nitrogenous waste?

Ans: –The blood capillaries are useful for the movement of the substance into the glomerulus along with the nitrogenous waste.



1) Multiple choice type questions.

i.) Rickets is caused due to deficiency of:

a) Iron

b) Vitamin D

c) Proteins

d) Carbohydrates.

Ans: – Option(b).

ii.) One gram of a substance was oxidized. The energy released amounted to9.0Kcal. The substance was of the type:

a) Carbohydrates

b) Fats

c) Vitamins

d) Proteins.

Ans: – Option(b).

iii.) A person living in the hilly regions of Shimla developed swelling in his neckregion. The doctor said his thyroid gland got swelled up. Name the nutrient deficient in his diet.

a) Calcium

b) Iron

c) Phosphorus

d) Iodine.

Ans: – Option(d).

iv.) The vitamin that helps in the clotting of blood is:

a) Vitamin A

b) Vitamin D

c) Vitamin E

d) Vitamin K.

Ans: – Option(c).

V) In human beings, gas exchange between the environment and the body takes place in the :

a) larynx

b) bronchi

c) alveoli

d) trachea.

Ans: – Option(c).

vi.) RBCs of human beings who live in high altitude regions:

a) increase in number

b) decrease in number

c) decrease in size

d) increase in size.

Ans: – Option(a).

vii.) Lungs have a large number of alveoli for:

a) maintaining a spongy texture and proper shape.

b) more surface area for diffusion of gases.

c) more nerve supplies.

d) more space to increase volume of inspired air.

Ans: – Option(d).

viii.) The main function of lymph is to:

a) transport O2to the brain.

b) transport CO2to lungs.

c) return interstitial fluid to blood.

d) return RBCs and WBCs to lymph vessels.

Ans: – Option(d).


2.) Name the following.

i)A fluid that transports fatty acid and glycerol.

Ans: – Blood is the fluid that transport fatty acid and glycerol.

ii.) The valve present in between the chambers on the right side of the human heart.

Ans: – The valve present in between the chambers on the right side of the human heart is pulmonary valve.

iii.) The respiratory pigment present in RBCs.

Ans: – Haemoglobin is pigment of respiratory in RBC.

iv.) The iron containing pigment in RBCs.

Ans: – Haemoglobin.

v.) The phase of cardiac cycle in which the auricles contract.

Ans: – In atrial systole is phase of cardiac cycle in which the auricles contract.\


3.) Give on point of difference between the following.

1)Autotrophic and heterotrophic nutrition.

Ans: – In autotrophic mode of nutrition the food is made by its own and in heterotrophic mode of nutrition the food is taken from the outside.

2)Breathing and respiration.

Ans: – Breathing is a physical process whereas respiration is chemical process.

3)Arteries and veins.

Ans: – Arteries carried out the oxygenated blood whereas the vein carried out the deoxygenated blood.

4)Blood and lymph.

Ans: – In lymph there is only white blood cell whereas in blood there are RBC, WBC, and platelets present.

5)Auricular systole and ventricular systole.

Ans: – The auricular systole is the process when the arteries are contract whereas in ventricular systole the vein are contract.


4) Match the columns A and Column B.

Ans: –

Column A Column B
1. Sponge-like organs located in the chest. Lungs
2. Chamber acting as a common passage for food and air. pharynx
3. Elastic tissue that forms a flap over the top of

the larynx.

Main passageway to the lungs trachea
Small tubes that branch from the bronchi Bronchioles
Small air sacs in the lungs. Alveoli


5) Given below is an example of a certain structure and its function.

‘Kidney and excretion’

Fill in the blanks on a similar pattern.

1.) Alveoli and ____gas exchange_______

2.) Diaphragm and _______expand and _contract during oxygen intake and co2 out ____

3.) ‘C’-shaped cartilage rings and ___tracheas support_________

4.) Erythrocyte and ___works against enemies_________

5.) Left ventricle and _oxygen supplies to the body by different medium___________

6.) Pacemaker and ____blood pump________


6) What is a balanced diet? Name three items of a diet that provide three different nutrients?

Ans: – The food in which equal no offor minimum no of each source of vitamin is present then that food is known as the balance diet. This balance diet we will get through the milk.

7) What are the main steps of photosynthesis? Is sunlight essential for photosynthesis and why?

Ans: – The sunlight came from sun and the water receipted from the ground is the main source of photosynthesis process. In this process the sunlight us very essential for the photosynthesis process as absent of this the process would not happen.

8) A patient complains of lack of appetite, exhaustion and is losing weight. Diagnose the deficiency. What kind of diet would you suggest for the patient?

Ans: – The loose of weight or lack of appetite or exhausted can be happening with the disease came from various fungal or bacterial antigen.

9) Deficiency of which vitamin causes night blindness. What would you suggest to prevent this deficiency?

Ans: – The deficiency of vitamin which causes the night blindness is vitamin A.

Taking the green vegetables, we can prevent this deficiency.

10) Where does the digestion of starch, proteins and fats take place and what is therole played in digestion by liver and pancreas?

Ans: –  The digestion of starch happens in mouth;the digestion of protein happens in stomach and the digestion if fats take place in small intestines.

The bile juice is secreted from the liver which helps in digestion of the food particles.

11) Which component in your diet will not be digested if the enzyme lipase is not secreted?

Ans: – If the lipase is not secreted then the lipid of our body will not digest. So, the secretion of lipase is very necessary.

12) Explain how oxygen leaves the blood from the tissue capillaries and carbondi oxide enters the blood in the tissue capillaries.

Ans: – The oxygen which we take from the air is mixed with the blood and with the help of the arties transfer to the body parts and the co2 in this same way through veins came to the alveoli and then get out.

13) Explain the usefulness of large surface area provided by alveoli for respiration in human beings.

Ans: – As the surface are of the alveoli will be how much the amount of oxygen would be intake by it from air and more oxygenated blood will go to the body parts.

14) Why do arteries have a thick or elastic wall?

Ans: – The heart expresses more pressure to transfer the oxygenated blood from the lungs through the arteries to the different body parts. So, in this way the three needs thick and elastic wall for minimize this pressure.

15) What are the four types of blood groups present in humans? Prepare a table with two columns to show the different human blood groups and names of compatible blood groups in the other column.

Ans: –  There are four types of blood group in the human which are A, B, AB and O.

Blood group Antigen Antibody
A+ A B
A- A B
B+ B A
B- B A
AB+ A and B none
AB- A and B none
O+ none A and B
O- none A and B

Updated: March 3, 2022 — 3:53 pm

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  1. So much spelling mistakes

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