Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solution Chapter 4 – The Freedom Struggle of 1857
Balbharati Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solution Chapter 4: The Freedom Struggle of 1857. Marathi or English Medium Students of Class 8 get here The Freedom Struggle of 1857 full Exercise Solution.
|Std||Maharashtra Class 8|
|Subject||History and Civics Solution|
|Chapter||The Freedom Struggle of 1857|
(1.) REWRITE THE STATEMENTS BY CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE OPTIONS.
1.) V.D Savarkar named the struggle of 1857 as WAR O INDEPENDENCE.
2.) UMAJI NAIK united the Ramoshis to rebel against the british.
3.) After the struggle of 1857 the post of SECREATERY OF STATE was created in the British government to look after the affairs of India.
4.) LORD DALHOUSIE was the Governor General who annexed the princely states.
(2.) EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS WITH REASONS.
1.) THE PAIKAS MADE ARMED REBELLION AGAINST THE BRITISH.
ANS:- The Paikas were the traditionally armed force of odisha. They were warriors and were charged with policing functions during peacetime. The paikas were separated into three ranks notable by their occupation and the weapons they handled. The paik Rebelion also called the Paika Bidroha. It was armed rebellion against British east India company. The paikas united in revolt under their leader Bakshi Jagabandhu. Jagannath was projected as the symbol of odia unity. The paika Rebellion had several social, economic and political reasons. The paikas were alienated by the british who took over the hereditary rent free lands granted to them after the attack of khudra. They were also subjected to shakedown and oppression at the hands of the British Government and its servants.
2.) THERE WAS DISCONTENT AMONG THE HINDU AND MUSLIM SEPOYS.
ANS:- Sepoys in the time of british rule were regarded as powerless and hopeless peasants in uniform. U.P and Bihar were the regions occupied by the sepoys. Annexation of oudh by British led to maladministration . The sepoys began to develop discontent. The main reasons are:-
1.Discrimination of sepoys in all the ways. 2. Low wages and constant physical abuse from the bosses. 3.No permission to put caste marks or religious clothes.
3.) THE INDIAN SEPOYS COULD NOT KEEP STAND IN FRONT OF THE BRTISH ARMY.
ANS:- On may 11,1857 Indian sepoys revolted against in the British in Meerut over the use of cartridges graeased with pig and cow fat. The sepoys attacked the British magazine to captured the weapon store stocked there. But the sepoys could not withstand the British army. The reasons are:- (i) POLITICAL REASONS:- The higher class people like princes and educated class stayed away from the revolt. The revolt did not spread to a large area. The sepoys could not point out an alternative to the current British rule.
(ii) MILITARY REASONS:- The british army was very small well organaized and strong. The military supplies of the sepoys were limited.
(iii) ORGANIZATIONAL REASONS:- The sepoys were unorganaized and unplanned and very weak leadership. Leaders like Nana sahib, Tatyia tope were not efficient enough to confront the British army. The revolt was undirected and did not have any motive.
4.) AFTER THE STRUGGLE, INDIAN ARMY WAS DIVIODED ON THE BASIS OF CASTE.
ANS:- AFTER 1857 REVOLT THERE was a systametic reorgonaization of the arny was done for the following reasons:- a) To prevent the repetition of another revolt like that of 1857. B) To use the Indian army to defend the Indian territory of the empire from other imperialist powers in the regions like Russia, Germany, etc. c) The riflesc given to Indians were of an inferior quality till 1900. d) No Indians were allowed in the officer rank and the highest rank an Indian could reach till 1914 was that of a subedar. E) The Indian branch was reorganaized on the basis of the policy of balance and counterpoise and rule. f) The soldiers from Awadh, Bihar, Central India who had participated in the revolt were stated to be non martial. G) Caste and communal companies were introduced in all the regiments to form a mixture of various socio ethenic groups so as to balance each other. h) Communal, caste, tribal was made positive to check the growth of nationalist feelings among soldiers. I) Alert efforts were made to separate the soldiers from life. They were controlled through measures such as preventing newspapers, journals and nationalist publications from reaching them. J) On the whole the British Indian armyb stayed on a valueable military machine.
5.) THE BRITISH IMPOSED HEAVY TAXES ON INDIAN INDUSTRIES.
ANS:- The reasons are- a) The industries in India had their leading position in the world market. At the same time British industries were vlagging at the attack. B) To advance the position of British goods in the market they forced heavy taxes on Indian industries. C) Heavy duties were imposed on the import of plain cloth. D) To put up with these expences industries had to raise the prices of the goods, where Britain goods were cheaper. E) As a result Indian goods were misplaced from their lead in the market and British Induatries started to flourish. Later the pattern of the companys commercial relations with India underwent a qualitative changes. The Indian market and workers suffered but the British gained out of it.
(3.) ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN BRIEF:-
1.) WHAT WERE THE SOCIAL CAUSES BEHIND THE STRUGGLE OF 1857?
ANS:- The Revolt of 1857 is called as ‘Sepoy Mutiny’, Great Revolt’ and the ‘First war of Indian Independence’ is the turning point in the account of pre independent and early colonial India. The revolt was the result of religious insult to the sepoys.
THE SOCIAL CAUSES BEHIND THE REVOLT ARE:-
(i) Political and organizational:- a) Under the British rule each region became a scene of resistanceand revolt. The landholders were so depressed and unsatisfied. B) The expansionist and annexationist policies of the British power in India made all the Indian rulers, hindu and muslim look with doubt and developed hate towards to the British power in India.
(ii) Economic:- a) The economic policies of the british resulted in ruin all the segments of the Indian society. B) Due to the colonial policies of economic abuse, industry and agriculture suffered, and India became deindustrialized, broken and in debt.
(iii) Social and religious:- The social and religious partiality the british was unbearable . Viewing the Indians as racially inferior and culturally backwards made many problems in Indians.
(iv) Military and the immediate causes:- a) Mangal panday a sepoy of Barrackpore near Calcutta on 23 march in 1857 initiated the revolt of sepoys and it started as the revolt of the people. B) Mangal pandey was a spokesperson of the totality of the sepoys anger against the British. The unrest of the sepoys in the army of the British is the spontaneous outburst against the british officer. C) On may 11,1857 Indian sepoys revolted against the British in Meerut over the use of cartridges greased with pig and cow fat. Though a failure the revolt of 1857 made an immense influence on the mindest of Indian people. The British could easily suppress the revolt as they had enough armed forces. The sepoys were unorganaised, but they could create the sensation of the need foe independence among Indians.
2.) WHY DID INDIANS FAIL IN THE STRUGGLE OF 1857?
ANS:- On may 11, 1857 Indian sepoys revolted against the British in Meerut over the use of cartridges greased with pig and cow fat. The sepoys attacked the british magazine to arrest weapon store stocked there. But the sepoys could not withstand the british army. The reasons are:- A)POLITICAL REASONS:- a) The higherclass people like princes and educated class stayed missing from the revolt. b) The revolt did not spread to a large area. It just focused in central India and Northwestern india. c) The sepoys could not point out any substitute for the current British rule.
B)MILITARY REASONS:- The british army was so well organaized and strong. The military supplies of the sepoys were too limited .
- C) ORGANAIZATIONAL REASONS:- 1.The sepoys were umorganaized. 2. very weak leadership. Leaders loke Nana sahib, Tantia tope, Rani lakshmibai were not efficient enough to confront the British army. The revolt was undirected and did not have any motive. 4. It was just uprising from the religious and emotional wounds of Sepoys. Many parts of central and southern India remained undisturbed in the revolt. The area of influence of the revolt 1857 was so limited. But the revolt could make neceassery changes in people. There were limitations for the Indians, and it is natural because akll the political and armed powers were the british.
3.) WRITE DOWN THE CONSEQUENCES OF STRUGGLE OF 1857.
ANS:- The 1857 revolt failed and crushed by the suyperior military force of the British was a sihnificant event of far reachingconsequences in the history of British rule in India.
The results of the 1857 revolt may be subdivided as-
A)CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES:- a) The British crown gave up the policy of secondary isolation and advocated a policy of subordinate combination in respect of native states. b) The transfer of power from a trading company to the power of Britain by the Government of India act1858. c) The designation of the Governor general of India was changed of viceroy. d) The administrative machinery in India was centralized effectively due to the development of communications.
- B) CHANGES THE ARMY:- a) Before the revolt of 1857 the army of the British In India was divided into major divisions. The weapon section was entirely kept under the British . b) There were more European Soldiers in the army and the expenditure on the army doubled up.
- C) SOCIAL EFFECTS:- India developed the growth of social distance between the Hindus and Muslims which led to the communalization of social life and partition of India on communal lines. Thus the revolt of 1857 had numerous cvonsequences in the social life of Indians. The British took all the steps to avoid any other revolt in future. The rearrangement in all the fields of administration was a safety masure for it. The revolt made the British more
4.) WHAT WERE THE CHANGES IN BRITISH POLICY AFTER THE STRUGGLE OF 1857.
ANS:- The revolt of 1857 made changes in evey field of life, and the Britishers determined to take necessary actions not to repeat such an uprising thereafter.
A)COMMERCIAL POLICY:- a) British tried constantly to open new markets for Indian goods in Britain. Therby it improved the export of Indian manufactures and thus encouraged their production. b) As a result of such excessive import duties and the development of machine industries Indian exports to foreign countries fell rapidly.
B) THE LOSS OF WEALTH POLICY:- a) The British exported to Britain part of India’s wealth and resources. India did not get any adequate economic return. This made an economic drain in India. b) By the end of the eighteenth century, the drain formed nearly 9% of India national income. c) The drain took the figure of an overload of India’s exports over its imports for which India got no return. British colonial rule did huge damaged to India’s economic system. The changes in the policy were actually to take away the wealth of India at the earliest. The revolt of 1857 made the Britishers frightened about the chances of being kicked out from India. The country which they had been invading and ruling brutally.