Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solution Chapter 2 – Europe and India
Balbharati Maharashtra Board Class 8 History Solution Chapter 2: Europe and India. Marathi or English Medium Students of Class 8 get here Europe and India full Exercise Solution.
|Std||Maharashtra Class 8|
|Subject||History & Civics Solution|
|Chapter||Europe and India|
1.REWRITW THE STATEMENTS BY CHOOSING THE APPROPRIATE OPTIONS
1.) In 1453 the city of CONSTANTINOPLE was conquered by ottoman turks.
2.) The industrial revolution began in ENGLAND.
3.) SIRAJ UD DAULAH tried to put restrictions on the illegal trade of british.
2.EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING CONCEPTS:-
1.) COLONAILISM:- “ Colonialism is the policy of acquiring full or partial political control over another country, occupying it with settlers.
The important features of colonialism are-
The dominant country or a nation takes control of other weaker lands, regions, or territorists outside of its borders by maing those other lands, regions, or territories into a colony.
The more powerful, a richer country takes dominance of the smaller, less powerful region.
Dominant countries use colonialism to get more land or wealth for their people to live in.
The local people living in the less powerful land or territories were usually moved away by using force and fighting from armies.
Colonialism is also practiced by dominant countries to get more land so that they can use the land for farming, trees, metals etc.
Colonial countries make colonies for getting land to crate a local government or military fort.
Colonialism also helps dominant countries to get workers from the porer country to work in factories or farms.
India was the recessive country and the colony of the britishers for 190 years.
The workers in the recessive country have forced the people from the poorer countries to work as slaves.
2.) IMPERIALISM:- Imperialism is a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through colonization, use of military force.
The age of new imperialism began in the 1870 in Europe. Imperialism in the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century is now termed old imperialism. The age of Imperialism is from 1870 to 1914. A foreign country can also exert a great deal of economic influence on the recessive country. One of the most widespread forms of imperialism was colonization. Most notable example of American imperialism in this age was the annexation of Hawali islands in 1898.
3.) AGE OF RENAISSANCE:- The Renaissance is a period fom the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the middle ages and modern history.
The main characteristics of the renaissance are:-
Renaissance means rebirth. It was like a rebirth of art, sculpture, paintings,etc. it started as a cultural movement in Italy later spread in Europe. This period in European civilization can be characterized by a surge of interest in classical scholarships and values. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that initially began in Italy, Florence but later spread in Europe. It started around 1350 and ended around 1600.
Cause of Renaissance:-
1.rise of academicians. 2.The discovery of the Printing press. 3. Support of rulers, popes and nobles. 4.the social movement. 5.Trade and success. 6.New wealth and the black death. 7. Peace and war.
4.) CAPITALISM:- An economic and political system in which a countrys trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state” is called Capitalism.
The main characteristic of capitalism are:-
(1.) A two class system:- A capitalist society was characterized by the split between two classes of individuals – the capitalist class, and the working class. The economy is run by the individuals who own and operate companies and make decisions as to the utilization of resources. Thee exist a division of labor which allows for specialization. This specialization is occurring through education and training, further breaking down the two class system into sub classes.
(2.) Profit motive:- Companies exist to make a profit and therefore it has a market nature. The motive for all companies is to make and sell goods and services only for profits. Companies do not exist solely to please peoples needs.
(3.) MINIMAL GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION- Capitalist societies need the freedom to operate without even any government intervention. But a completely government free capitalist society exists in theory only.Even in European countriesthe government regulates certain industries.
(4.) Competition:– True capitalism needs an economical market which is competitive. Cometition prevent the formation of monopolies and markets sets the price not the seller.
(5.) Willingness to change:- Capitalism has the ability to adapt and change. It improves inefficiencies within economic structures is a true characteristic of capitalism.
- EXPLAIN THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS WITH REASONS:-
1.) SIRAJ-UD-DAULAH WAS DEFEATED IN THE BATTLE OF PLASSEY.
ANS:- The battle of plassey was a decisive victory of the british over the nawab of Bengal and his French allies on 23rd june 1757 unde the leadership of Robert clive. The battle enabled the companys presence in Bengal.
Reasons for siraj-ud-daulah’s defeat are:- 1.Robert clives made conspiracy with the nawabs commander in chief Mir jafar.
2.Siraj-ud-daulah’s soldiers fought hard but were leaderless and without direction.
3.The cannon and musket fire from Clive’s positions inflicted great loss on Siraj-ud-daulah’s troops.
4.The british guns opened fire and murdered many of the cavalries, killing their commander Mir madan khan.
5.The nawab Siraj-ud-daulah panicked at loss of this and ordered his forces to fall back. This was rushed by the British and they captured Calcutta.
- The british bombarded the nawab’s position without reply and nawab fled the battle field on a camel, and Mir jafor was duly installed in power as a british puppet.
- The victory had cost the lives of only twenty two soldiers on the british side while achieving a major step toward British control of Bengal.
2.) THE EUROPEAN COUNTRIES FELT THE NECESSITY OF FINDING NEW TRADE ROUTES TO ASIA.
ANS:- The European countries started finding new trade routes between 1400 and 1500.
1.Many European nations were in constant conflict with each other as they struggled to increase their power and wealth.
- Europeans wanted to have a profitable spice trade in the east. That is an overland route through Russia and the middle east.
3.After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 the ottoman turks charged Christian traders high fees to get through and they needed new trade routes.
- The Russian route was not safe because of looting bands of Mongols and Tatars which regularly raided the trade caravans.
5.Vasco d agama found a way to the Indian ocean around the tip of Africa, that they got th spice trade while cutting out these intruders.
6.This led to further explorations by coloumbus to discover the Americans and the Caribbean.
3.) European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies.
ANS:- The middle of the 16th century and the middle of the 18th century witnessed the expansion of india’s overseas trade. This was due to the trading activities of the various European compaies which came to india during this period. European rulers started giving military protection and trade concessions to the trading companies because-1.If conflicts happen with Indian rulers it will become dissicult for European traders to keep their business. 2. They wanted toseparate trade and conflicts from Indian politics. 3.The European rulers wanted to sole right to trade with the east , without competition from other british traders. 4. Trade concessions were given as the incentive to the trading companies so that they remain to their rules and regulations in trade.
- Complete the following table:-
|Bartolomeu Dias||Reached to the tip of South Africa.|
|Christopher Columbus.||Reached America.|
|Vasco da gama||Reached to west coast of India Calicut port.|