Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solution Chapter 4 – The Indian Judicial System
Balbharati Maharashtra Board Class 8 Civics Solution Chapter 4: The Indian Judicial System. Marathi or English Medium Students of Class 8 get here The Indian Judicial System full Exercise Solution.
Maharashtra Class 8
|History and Civics Solution|
The Indian Judicial System
(1.) Choose the correct option and complete the statements.
1) Laws are made by Legislature
2) The chief justice of Supreme Court is appointed by President.
(2.) Explain the concepts.
1) JUDICIAL REVIEW:- One of the most important responsibilities entrusted to the supreme court is the protection of the constitution. You are aware that the constitution is the fundamental law of the Nation. The parliament cannot pass any law that violates the constitution. Every policy made by the executive should also be consistent with the constitution. If any law passed by the legislature or any act of the executive violates any provision of the constitution, the said law or act is declared illegal and struck down by the court. This power of the court is known as Judicial Review.
2.) PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION:- Public Interest Litigation refers to litigations filed on issues of public importance by individual citizens, social organaisations on behalf of the all people. The court thinks over the questions raised and gives its decision.
(3.) Write short notes on.
1.) CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LAW:- Civil law deals with conflicts which affect or interfere with the rights of a person. For example- conflicts regarding land and property, rent agreement, divorce, etc. After filing a petition in the relevant court, the said court gives a decision.
Serious crimes are dealt under criminal law. For example, theft, dowry, murder etc. In these cases, the first step is to file a first Information Report with the police. The police investigates the matter and then a petition is filed in the court. If the Charges are proved, there are provisions for severe punishment. The Indian judiciary has made a significant contribution in development of the country. Common people have a lot of respect and trust in the judicial system. The judiciary in India has protected individual freedom, the federal system and the constitution of India. Courts have played an important role in strengthening the democracy in India.
2.) JUDICIAL ACTIVISM:- In judicial activism the courts settle the disputes whenever they are approached for that purpose.The court has tried to provide legal protection to the marginalized sections in society, women, tribal, farmers, and children. Public Interest Litigations have played and important role in this regard. By definition Judicial activism refers to ‘judicial rulings that are suspected of being based on personal opinion, rather than on existing law’. The question of judicial activism is closely related to constitutional understanding, legislative construction, and division of powers.
(4.) Answer in brief
1.) WHY ARE LAWS NECEASSERY IN SOCIETY?
ANS:- The rule of law is protected by the judiciary. It is neceassery in society because- a)It protects our general safety. b) It exists at the local, state and national levels. C) It ensures our rights as citizens against abuses by other people, by organaisations, andby the government. d) It avoids conflicts between social groups and communities. e) It allows fo easy adoption to changes that occur in the society. The law treats everyone equally. All are equal before law and this is expressed clearly through judicial decisions.
2.) ENUMERATE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT.
ANS:- The functions of Supreme court are-
a)As a federal court, it has the responsibility to settle disputes between the central and states; and Central on one side and States on the other.
b) It may also give orders to relevant authorities for protection of the fundamental rights of citizens.
c) To review decrees and orders of lower courts and also review its own decisions.
d) In case the President asks for the advice of the court to understand the legal aspects in matters of public importance and provide the necessary advice.
3.) WHICH ARE THE PROVISIONS THAT PRESERVE THE INDEPENDENCE OF THE JUDICIARY?
ANS:- The provisions that preserve the Independence of the judiciary-
(a) By ensuring high qualification of judges.
(b) By prohibition of practice of judges after retirement.
(c) By granting long time for judges that ideally frees them to decide cases and make rulings.
(5.) complete the table.
Supreme Court- Chief justice.
High court- High court chief justice
District court- District judge.