Maharashtra Board Class 10 Geography Solution Chapter 3 – Physiography and Drainage
Balbharati Maharashtra Board Class 10 Geography Solution Chapter 3: Physiography and Drainage. Marathi or English Medium Students of Class 10 get here Physiography and Drainage full Exercise Solution.
|Maharashtra Class 10|
Physiography and Drainage
Q 1. Complete the sentences by choosing the right option:
(a) Brazil is covered mainly by …………..
(i) Highlands. (ii) Plains. (iii) Mountainous region. (iv) Dissected hills.
(b) Like Brazil, India too has ……………..
(i) high mountains. (ii) ancient plateau. (iii) west-flowing rivers. (iv) snow-capped mountains.
Ans)(ii) ancient plateau
(c) The Amazon Basin is mainly ………..
(i) characterized by droughts. (ii) filled by swamps. (iii) covered by dense forests. (iv) fertile.
Ans)(iii) covered by dense forests.
(d) Amazon is a large river in the world. Near its mouth ……………………………..
(i) deltaic regions are found. (ii) no deltas are found. (iii) deposition of sediments occurs. (iv) fishing is done.
Ans) (ii) no deltas are found
(e) The Lakshadweep Islands of Arabian Sea are ………………………………………..
(i) made from the part separated from the mainland. (ii) coral islands. (iii) volcanic islands. (iv) continental islands.
Ans)(ii) coral islands
(f ) To the foot hills of The Aravalis …….
(i) lies the Bundelkhand Plateau. (ii) lies the Mewad Plateau. (iii) lies the Malwa Plateau. (iv) lies the Deccan Plateau.
Ans)(iii) lies the Malwa Plateau
2.) Answer the following questions
(a) Differentiate between the physiography of Brazil and India.
Ans) i) India is divided into five major physiographic divisions-The Himalayas , The North Indian Plains, The Peninsula ,Coastal Plains, Island groups.
The physiographic divisions of Brazil are-The Highlands ,The Great Escarpment ,The Coastal region, The Plains, The Island groups.
ii) The Himalayas is one of the young fold mountains in the world and a major mountain system of the Asian continent. In India, it extends from Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh.
Brazil does not have such mountain ranges like The Himalaya.
iii) Indian Peninsula consists of many plateaus and hill ranges. The Aravalis in the north are the oldest fold mountains here. Again in the central part of India there are Vindnyas and Satpuda ranges and in the hilly regions of Western and Eastern Ghats are also important.
The southern Brazil is occupied by Brazilian and Guyana Highlands and they together form the core of South American continent.
iv) India has a long coastline extending for approximately 7500 km and lies to the western and eastern part of the Peninsula.The western coast borders the Arabian Sea and the eastern coast borders the Bay of Bengal.
Brazil has a coastline of about 7400 km. namely northern and eastern coast.The northern coast extends from Amapa province in the north to Rio de Grande de Norte in the east. The eastern coast extends towards the south from the North Atlantic coast.
v) Northern Indian plains lies between Himalaya Mountains in the north and the Peninsula in the south. Similarly, it extends from Rajasthan and Punjab in the west to Assam in the east.
The plains in Brazil are confined to two areas namely the Amazon basin in the north and Paraguay-Parana source region in the southwest.The other plains in Brazil are located to the south-western part of the highlands.
(b) What measures are being taken to control pollution in the rivers of India?
Ans) Measures being taken to control pollution in the rivers of India are-
i) Implementation of Scientifically developed sewage system.
ii) Avoid of throwing waste products and factory wastage into the water bodies before processing.
iii) Implementation of Gaga Action Plan by the Government.
iv) Many other Government measures have taken to control pollution in the river.
v) People are instructed to use more organic products.
vi) Instruction has given to stop realising of chemicals into the rivers from the factories.
vii) Farmers are also being instructed to use more organic fertilizers.
(c) Explain the characteristics of the North Indian Plains.
Ans)The characteristics of the North Indian Plains are-
i) North Indian Plains are mostly a flat low lying area.
ii) It is divided into two parts- Eastern North Indian plain and Western North Indian Plain.
iii) The part lying to the east of the Aravalis is the basin of the river Ganga and is therefore known as the Ganga Plains.
iv) The western part of the North Indian Plains is occupied by desert. It is also known as Thar Desert or Marusthali.
(d) What could be the reasons behind the formation of swamps in the extensive continental location of Pantanal?
Ans) The reason behind the formation of swamps in the extensive continental location of Pantanal is that it is one of the largest wetlands in the world. It also lies towards the southwest part of the highland areas and always submerged under the water.
(e) Which are the major water divides of India giving examples.
Ans) The major water divides of India are-
i) The Western Ghats in the Peninsula. It divides the west flowing rivers like mahadevi etc. from east flowing rivers like Krishna, Kaveri, Godavari etc.
ii) Aravalli Range.
iii) Vindhya Range.
Q 3. Write notes on
(a) Amazon River basin
Ans) Amazon river is suitable for navigation. Amazon River receives huge discharge and because of which washes off the load supplied to it from the eastern slopes of Andes Mountains in Peru.Instead of a dense network of distributaries we find a series of islands developed along the mouth of Amazon beyond the coast line in to the Atlantic Ocean.
Ans) It is one of the young fold mountains in the world and a major mountain system of the Asian continent.The Himalayas extend from Pamir Knot in Tajikistan to the east and in India, it extends from Jammu and Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh. From south to north it is divided into four ranges ,named-Siwaliks, Lesser Himalayas,Greater Himalayas or Himadri and Trans Himalayan ranges. Again from west to east-Western Himalayas or Kashmir Himalayas, Central Himalayas or Kumaun Himalayas and Eastern Himalayas or Assam Himalayas.
(c) The coasts of Brazil
Ans) The coastline of Brazil is about 7400 km and divided into two parts, northern and eastern coast. The northern coast extends from Amapa province in the north to Rio de Grande deNorte in the east and from there, the eastern coast extends towards the south. Amazon is the main river in northern coast and the only major river which meets the Atlantic Ocean in eastern coast is Sao Francisco.
(d) The Indian peninsula
Ans) South of North Indian Plains is called the Indian peninsula. It extends towards Indian Ocean . It consists of a series of plateaus bordering the Plains. The Aravalis in the north are the oldest fold mountains here. In the central part we find Vindnyas and Satpuda ranges. The west part is called western ghat and esat part is called eastern ghat.
(e) The Great Escarpment
Ans) It is one of the physiographic divisions of Brazil. It has a great effect on the climate of Brazil. In the Eastern side of the Highlands the altitude of the escarpment is 790 m. The escarpment is very steep particularly from Sao Paulo to Porto Alegre and acts as a barrier to the Southeast Trade winds giving rise to the rain-shadow area in the northeastern part of the highlands.
Q 4. Write geographical reasons.
a) There are no west-flowing rivers in Brazil.
Ans) There are no west-flowing rivers in Brazil .The main reason behind this is the position of North and South Atlantic Ocean. Both the oceans are covering the Northern and the Eastern part of Brazil respectively. As a result all the rivers coming from the highlands of Brazil take the eastern flow to meet Atlantic ocean as a natural phenomenon.
(b) There are dissimilarities between the eastern and western coasts of India.
Ans) There are dissimilarities between the eastern and western coasts of India because the western coast borders the Arabian Sea and the eastern coast borders the Bay of Bengal. The western coast has a rocky coast; rather Eastern coast was formed by the depositional works of the East flowing rivers. Again no deltas are found in the western coast but Eastern coast is full of deltas.
(c) There are fewer natural ports on the eastern coast of India.
Ans)There are fewer natural ports on the eastern coast of India because it has formed as a result of depositional work of East flowing rivers and so many deltas are found over here.
(d) As compared to Amazon, pollution in river Ganga will affect human life greatly.
Ans)The areas beside the Amazon river are mostly forested areas and largely inaccessible due to frequent flooding and dense undergrowth. Most of the Amazon plains are covered by tropical rainforests.As compared to Amazon Ganga plain is the most fertile land and densely populated. Increasing population and development made the land much polluted.