Lakhmir Singh Manjit Kaur Class 10 Biology 1st Chapter “Life Processes” solution

Lakhmir Singh Manjit Kaur Class 10 Biology 1st Chapter “Life Processes” solution

Lakhmir Singh and Manjit Kaur Biology solution: “Life Processes” Chapter 1. Here you get easy solutions of Lakhmir Singh and Manjit Kaur Biology solution Chapter 1. Here we have given Chapter 1 all solution of Class 10. Its help you to complete your homework.

  • Board – CBSE
  • Text Book – Biology
  • Class – 10
  • Chapter – 01

Lakhmir Singh Manjit Kaur Class 10 Biology 1st Chapter Solution


Very short answer type questions answers solution

1.) Which is the basic requirement of living organisms for obtaining energy?

ANS- food is the main requirement of living organisms for obtaining energy. Food get convert into various molecules. And by them body get energized.

2) Which of the following type of energy is used by living organisms to perform vital life processes?

Kinetic energy, chemical energy, potential energy, nuclear energy

ANS-chemical energy

Whenever organisms take food that time our body break that food chemically therefore we say that chemical energy plays vital role in life processes.

3.) Which of the following is an autotroph? Green plant or man

ANS-green plant is autotrophic because it makes its own food

4.) Name of two inorganic substances which are used by autotrophs to make food?

ANS-water and carbon dioxide is inorganic substances plays vital role in photosynthesis were plant makes their own food (autotrophic)

5.) What is mode of nutrition in fungi?

ANS-fungus are obtained there food by dead organisms it is a Saprophytic mode of nutrition.

6.) Name one organism each having saprophytic, parasitic, holozoic modes of nutrition?

ANS-saprophytic-fungus …….. Obtained there food from dead organisms

Parasitic-plasmodium who obtain their food from host living organism

Holozoic-giraffe who eats complex organic food

7.) Name the process by which plants make food?

ANS- Photosynthesis is the process where plants make food for get nutrition.

8.) In addition to carbon dioxide and water, state two other conditions necessary for the process of photosynthesis to take place?

ANS- sunlight and chlorophyll is the other two conditions necessary for the process of photosynthesis..

9.) Apart from sunlight and chlorophyll, what other things are required to make food by photosynthesis?

ANS-carbon dioxide and water is two more conditions required for photosynthesis

10.) a) Name a gas used in photosynthesis…… Ans- Carbon dioxide

b) Name a gas used produced in photosynthesis………….. Ans-oxygen

11.) The leaves of plant first prepared food A by photosynthesis. Food A then gets converted into   Food B. what are A and B?

ANS-Glucose is main product obtained from photosynthesis. After that glucose get convert into Starch.

11.) Which substance is used to remove chlorophyll from a green leaf during photosynthesis experiment?

ANS-for the remove chlorophyll from leaf it should boiled in alcohol.

12.) Why do we boil the leaf in alcohol when we are testing for starch?

ANS- To remove chlorophyll from a green leaf during photosynthesis.

13.) a) Name the pigment in leaves which absorbs sunlight energy

ANS-chlorophyll is green pigment who absorbs sunlight

b) What is the color of this pigment?

ANS-chlorophyll is green pigment

14.) Name of the pigment which can absorb solar energy?

ANS- chlorophyll pigment is absorbs solar energy

15.) Name the organelle of plant cells in which photosynthesis occurs?

ANS-chloroplast is cell organelle which contain the chlorophyll  where photosynthesis occurs.

16.) Apart from carbon dioxide and water name four other raw materials which are needed by plants?

ANS-chloroplast, chlorophyll, sunlight are more raw materials needed by plants.

17.) Where is the chlorophyll mainly present in plant?

ANS- chlorophyll is situating in chlorophyll.

18.) What is name of those cells in the leaf of plant which control opening and closing of stomata?

ANS-guard cells are responsible to control opening and closing of stomata in leaf.

19.) Name an animal’s whose process of obtaining food is called phagocytosis?

ANS-Amoeba obtained food by phagocytosis.

20.) All the animals can be divided into three groups on the basis of their eating habits. Name of the three groups?

ANS- Herbivorous (they eat only herbs, shrubs, trees), 4carnivorous ( depends on other animals, omnivores( they can eat animals as well plants)

21.) What is the scientific name of animals which are..

a) Only meat eaters- carnivores

b) Only plant eaters- herbivores

c) Both plant and meat eaters- omnivores

Name of the green pigment leaves in plants?

ANS- Chlorophyll is green pigment which present in plants

23.) Arrange the following processes which involved in the nutrition

Assimilation, egestion, ingestion, absorption, digestion

ANS- ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation, egestion

24.) How does amoeba engulf the food particle?

ANS- by developing pseudopodia amoeba engulf food particle this process called phagocytosis.

25.) From which part of the body undigested food is egested in amoeba?

ANS-cell membrane gets rupture and undigested food thrown out of body by amoeba

26.) What substances enter into the food vacuole in amoeba to break down the food?

ANS-digestive enzyme enters into food vacuole in amoeba to break down the food.

27.) Name the unicellular animals which use cilia to move food particle into its mouth.

ANS- paramecium is use cilia to move food particle into its mouth which is unicellular.

28.) Name the enzyme present in human saliva. What type of food material is digested by this enzyme?

ANS- salivary amylase enzyme present in human saliva. Starch and carbohydrates get digested for that it breaks down into sugar.

29.) Which organs perform the following functions in humans?

a) Absorption of food= ANS: small intestine

b) Absorption of water= ANS: large intestine

30.) What moves the food in the digestive organs?

ANS-peristaltic movement moves food in the digestive organs.

31.) What is the other nature food pipe?


32.) What substance is mixed with food in the mouth during chewing by the teeth?

ANS- Salivary amylase mixed with food in the mouth during chewing by the teeth.

33.)  What is the name of tiny projections on the inner surface of small intestine which helps in absorbing the digested food?

ANS-villi is the tiny projection present in the inner lining of the intestine.

34.) In which part of the digestive system is water absorbed?

ANS- large intestine is the part of digestive system which absorbs water.

35.) What is the name of the opening in the human body through which undigested food thrown out?

ANS- undigested food thrown by anus opening from human body.

36.) Where is digested food absorbed into blood in human body?

ANS-digested food absorbed in blood stream it comes from small intestine in human body.

37.) Name the biological catalysts which bring about chemical digestion of food?

ANS-chemical digestion done by biological catalyst called enzyme.

38.) Fill in the blanks

a) All green plants are ………………….


b) All non- green plants and animals are ………………..

ANS- heterotrophic

c) Heterotrophs depend on ………………. And others……………. For food.

ANS-plants, animals

d) Green plants use ………… , …………. And ………………. To make food

ANS-water, carbon dioxide, sunlight

e) Iodine turns blue –black on reacting with………….

ANS- Starch

39.) 1) What is chlorophyll? what does chlorophyll play in photosynthesis?

ANS-chlorophyll is a green color pigment present in chloroplast which absorbs sunlight in photosynthesis process.

2)  a) which simple food is prepared in photosynthesis?


b) Name the food which gets stored in plants leaves


Short answer type questions answers solution

40.) a)  What criteria can be used to decide whether something is alive?

b) What is meant by life processes? Name of the basic life processes common to all living organisms

ANS- a.) movement is the basic criteria decides something is alive

b.) the basic functions performed by living organisms to maintain their life on this earth are called life processes. Nutrition and respiration, transport and excretion, control and coordination is the basic life processes.

41.) A) What are autotrophs? give one example of autotrophs.

ANS-organism which makes their own food called autotrophs. Example-plants

B) what is condition necessary for autotrophic nutrition?

ANS- autotrophic nutritional condition is inorganic raw material like carbon dioxide, water, sunlight.

42.) A) What are heterotrophs? Give one example of heterotrophs.

ANS-organisms which lived on other organism for food example: animal, human being

B) What is condition necessary for heterotrophic nutrition?

ANS-animals cannot make food by inorganic raw materials

43.) a) Define nutrient. Name four important nutrients present in our food.

b) What is the various type of heterotrophic nutrition?


a) The process of taking food and utilizing it is called nutrient. Carbohydrates, fats, salt minerals, proteins are nutrients present in our food.

b) Saprotrophic nutrition, parasitic nutrition, holozoic nutrition

44.) a)  Photosynthesis converts energy x into energy Y . What are X and Y ?

b) State the various steps involved in the process of photosynthesis.


a) Glucose=X, Starch=Y

b) carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight get reacts in the presence of chlorophyll gives main product glucose and side product oxygen. Glucose further convert into starch.

45.) a)  How do plants obtain food?

ANS- by photosynthesis they make their own food

b) Why do plants need nitrogen? How do plants obtain nitrogen?

ANS-nitrogen is a major component of chlorophyll where the plant use sunlight energy to produce Sugars from water and carbon dioxide. It is major component of amino acids.

46.) Define 1. Saprophytic nutrition 2. Parasitic nutrition 3. Holozoic nutrition give an example


1.) Saprophytic nutrition: it is mode of nutrition where the organisms feed on dead and decaying matter. Example – fungus

2.) Parasitic nutrition: the organisms live on inside the host body and derive their food from them called parasite they usually harms the host. Example-plasmodium

3.) Holozoic nutrition: that nutrition characterized and internal processing of gaseous, liquids or solids food particles. Example-Amoeba

47.) Define saprophytic nutrition give two examples.


it is mode of nutrition where the organisms feed on dead and decaying matter. Example – fungus, rhizopus

48.) a) how does carbon dioxide from the air enter the leaves of plant to be used in photosynthesis?

b) how does water from the soil reach the leaves of plan to be used in photosynthesis?


a) carbon dioxide from the air enter into the leaves to producing oxygen molecule and glucose molecule.

b) Water reaches to leaves via xylem pipe. That can use in photosynthesis.

49.) What substances are contained in gastric juices? What are their functions?


Gastric juice is made by various types of biochemical like HCl , lipase, pepsin. And its function to protect from microorganisms.

50.) What substances are contained in pancreatic juices? What are their functions?

ANS-pancreases secrets pancreatic juices called digestive enzymes example-pancreatic amylase, trypsin, and lipase. and they breaks the starch, digest proteins and emulsify fats.

51.) A) What is the role of hydrochloric acid in our stomach?

B) What is the function of enzymes in the human digestive system?


A) Hydrochloric acid acidifies food for digestive purpose

B) Enzyme is the biochemical catalyst which helps to enhance rate of reactions in digestive system.

52.) A) Which part of the body secrets bile? Where bile stored? What is the function of bile?

B) What is the trypsin? What is its function?


A) Liver secrets a bile. Bile stored in gall bladder, and it function to alkaline food and it emulsify a fats.

B) Trypsin is the digestive enzyme who digests protein.

53.) What are the function of liver and pancreas?

ANS-liver secrets bile which alkaline in nature who add base into acidified food and pancreas secrets pancreatic juices contain digestive enzymes.

54.) Match the following

Column I                                      Column ii   

Leech                                         Holozoic nutrition

Amoeba                                    Autotrophic nutrition

Mushroom                               Parasitic nutrition

Green plant                              Saprophytic nutrition

ANS- Green plant -Autotrophic nutrition

Amoeba        -holozoic nutrition

Mushroom   – saprophytic nutrition

Leech             – parasitic nutrition

56.) Name of the following

a) The cell organelle where photosynthesis occurs

b) The cells which surrounded a stomata pore

c) An enzyme secret by gastric glands in stomach which acts an proteins.


a) Chloroplast

b) Guard cells

c) Pepsin

57.) Match the following

Column I                      column II

Trypsin                         Liver

Amylase                       Gastric juice

Bile                               Pancreas

Pepsin                           Saliva

ANS- Trypsin   – Pancreas

Amylase – Saliva

Bile          – Liver

Pepsin     – Gastric juice

58.) a) What is common Cucuta, ticks and leeches?

b) Name the substances on which the following enzymes acts in the human digestive enzymes:

Trypsin, Amylase, Pepsin, Lipase

c) Why does absorption of digested food occurs mainly in the small intestine?


a) all these above organisms are parasite living in other organisms called host.

b) Trypsin-pancreatic juices , Amylase-salivary amylase, Pepsin-gastric juice, Lipase-lipase amylase( gastric juice)

c) Inner lining of intestine is made by finger like projections called villi which is with numerous blood vessels. And hence it get large surface area. That is the reason food is more get absorbs in food.

59.) a)  Why is small intestine in herbivorous is longer than carnivorous   

b) What will happen if mucus is not secreted by the gastric glands?

C) What causes movement of food inside the alimentary canal?


a) Herbivorous consume plants and grass which is full of cellulose. And cellulose digestion has taken longer time to digest. and for the absorption of food more surface area get available. Hence herbivorous having longer small intestine than carnivores.

b) Hydrochloric acids help to acidify food and that time mucus get protects from hydrochloric acid.

c) In alimentary canal peristaltic movement is done due to smooth muscles relaxation and contraction food gets moves through it.

60.)  A) How do guard cells regulate opening and closing of stomata pores?

B) two similar green plants are kept separately in oxygen free container one in dark and other in    Which one we live longer? Give


A) When water flows into the guard cells they swell up and the curved surface the stomata to open. when guard cell loose water it shrink and shows osmosis process.

B) Green plant which placed in light lived longer life due to photosynthesis.

61.) A)  What would happen if all the green plants disappear from the earth

B) If a plant is releasing carbon dioxide and taking in oxygen during the day, does it mean that there is photosynthesis occurring? Justify your answer.


A) Oxygen level reduces when plants get disappear from earth green.

B) No it is not photosynthesis. Plants produce oxygen during day time.

62.) A) Leaves of healthy potted plants were coated with Vaseline. Will this plant remain healthy for long?

B) What will happen to the rate of photosynthesis in a plant under the following circumstances?

i) cloudy day in morning but bright sunshine in afternoon

ii) no rainfall in the area for a considerable time

iii) gathering of dust on leaves


A) NO, because for making of food plants need light but Vaseline get apply absorption of sunlight is reduced and plants is not remains healthy.


i) plant growth is slow but growth should observed

ii) plant will die due to absence of water

iii) Plants growth is moderate due to dust contamination and less amount of sunlight reached.

Long answer type questions answers solution

63.) a) What is photosynthesis? b) Write a chemical equation to show the process of photosynthesis in plants. c) Explain the mechanisms of photosynthesis.


Photosynthesis is the process where light energy get converts into chemical energy. Where plants make their own food with the help of water, carbon dioxide and light. Carbohydrates are the most-important direct organic product of photosynthesis in the majority of green plants. With these raw material plants makes glucose, glucose get converts further in starch.

The mechanism of photosynthesis is an oxidation – reduction process. In this process light energy is trapped by chloroplasts which present in leafs. And the role of  carbon dioxide which fixes  carbon source and shows many cycles like kerbs cycle at the end got sugar and produces oxygen molecule.

64.) a) name the raw materials required for photosynthesis how do plants obtain these raw materials. b) What are the various conditions necessary for photosynthesis? C) Name the various factors which affect the rate of photosynthesis in plants.


a) Water, chlorophyll, carbon dioxide, and sunlight is very basic raw material required for photosynthesis. They are very inter dependent to each other. Carbon dioxide and water takes major role in photosynthesis where the oxidation and reduction will happens and from that plants get energy in the form of glucose.

b) Lac of water and carbon dioxide affects the photosynthesis process .as well we cut off the sunlight then the energy source will not getting them. Photosynthesis whole process can happened in the presence of sunlight so basically sunlight also affects this process .

c) temperature is main factor which affect the photosynthesis. Temperature gets rises and cools due to sunlight. If temperature get fluctuated then ultimately effect on water as well sunlight so it is the main factor which affects photosynthesis.

65.) a) Define nutrition. Why is nutrition necessary for an organism? b) What are the different modes of nutrition? Explain with one example of each mode of nutrition. C) Name the mode of nutrition in roundworm and plasmodium.


a) nutrition is process where food get consume and then it digest by various digestive organs and lastly it absorb by body. Nutrition is plays important role in the body.

b) Its is very essential because it is provides energy to various body parts for their functions or activities it is provide us immunity to fight against harmful foreign particles, microorganisms as well as diseases. And also helps to daily activities.

c) Various mode of nutrition is seen in organisms like 1.autotrophic-which makes their own food 2.heterotrophic-which depends on other for food. Heterotrophic nutrition further divided into three parts like saprophytic, parasitic, and holozoic.

.66.) a) What are the herbivores, carnivores, ad omnivores? Give two examples of each b) classify the following into herbivores  carnivores and omnivores: lion, dog, man, goat, crow, elephant snake hawk rabbit dear c) name the five steps which occurs in the process of nutrition in animals


a) Herbivores – it means animals which feed on plants or their primary source to take food which based on plants example: goat. Deer

Carnivores – organisms which eat only meat called carnivores or we called them meat eater.

Example: lion, ladybug

Omnivores- these organisms can eat both plants as well animals or meat. Example: chicken, human being, bear

b) Herbivores –goat, elephant, rabbit

Carnivores –lion, dog, snake, hawk


c) Ingestion –> digestion     –>      absorption     –>      assimilation    –>       egestion

After the ingestion of food it get digest which absorbs by different- different parts and then get assimilate at last egested by annul opening.

67.) a) Draw a labeled diagram of the human digestive system with the help of this diagram described the process of digestion of food in man. b) Describe one way in which the small intestine is adapted for the absorption of digested food. C) What is the special name of the contraction and expansion movement which pushes the food further in our digestive track?


a) Digestion is a vital process where complex food substances are broken down into simpler and absorbable molecules so that it could be easily absorbed by the different cells and tissues. The digestive system plays a significant role in the digestion process, which is composed of the alimentary canal and other associated glands. The alimentary canal is divided into five main parts- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, small intestine, and lastly large intestine.

Mouth – Digestion of food starts from the mouth. Here, the food is cut into small pieces by the teeth. The salivary amylase produced by the salivary glands it get mixed with the food. The enzyme salivary amylase, which digests the starch and breaks it into glucose.

Pharynx –It is a fibro muscular, Y-shaped tube-like structure, attached to a bottom of the mouth. It is involved in the passage of chewed food.

Esophagus —this is a muscular tube, measuring 25 cm long and located near the trachea connecting to the pharynx. It has upper part which called gastrointestinal tract and is mainly do function to passes food from mouth to stomach.

Stomach –It is a hollow and muscular organ, situated towards the left side of the abdominal cavity. It is a vital organ; it produces hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes for digestion purpose.

Small Intestine –It is a thin and long tube-like is part of the lower gastrointestinal tract. The small intestine is located just behind the stomach, which is found completely coiled and consists of folds and ridges.

Large Intestine –This is a thick and long tube-like structure measuring about 4 to 5 feet inlength. It is present just beneath the stomach and wraps over the superior and lateral edges of the small intestine. It functions by absorbing water and support in the breakdown of wastes to nutrients.

Liver –The live triangular-shaped organ of the digestive secrets bile which is alkaline in nature by producing bile digestion will happens. Also due to some enzyme secretion there were digestion of fat also happens.


b) Villi is small capillary or finger like projections present in the small intestine which is provides

large surface area to absorbs digested food .villi is well adapted to absorbs the products of digestion by diffusion and active transport.


c) Special type of contraction and relaxation done in alimentary canal to move food further called as peristalsis movement.

68.) a) Describe the process of nutrition in amoeba. Draw labeled diagrams to show the various steps in the nutrient in amoeba. b) What is the mode of nutrition in amoeba? c) What is the process of obtaining food by amoeba called? What does it mean?


a) Nutrition is process where food get consume and then it digest by various digestive organs and lastly it absorb by body. Nutrition is plays important role in the body.

(ii) Nutrition on Amoeba:Amoeba is a unicellular organism, which follows the holozoic mode of nutrition. It shows phagocytosis for taking food the various processes involved in nutrition are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.

(i) Ingestion is the process by which the amoeba takes food inside the that it forms temporary cavity which starts from membrane called pseudopodia around the food particle, and then it develops a bag-like structure called vacuole.

(ii)Digestion is the process where the food is breaking intosimple substances. And in this process  in the vacuole plays major role in amoeba where digestive enzymes are secreted.

(iii) Absorption is the process by which the digested food in the vacuole is absorbed into the cytoplasm by diffusion.

(iv)Assimilation where the part of the food is absorbed into the cytoplasm which used and produces energy whichis used for growth and development as well reproduction.

(v) Egestion is the process wherein the undigested food is thrown by body from the vacuole.

b) holozoic mode of nutrition present in amoeba.

c) by phagocytosis it takes food.

69.) a) Describe the parts of our tooth with the help of labeled diagrams. b) what is mean by dental caries? How are they caused c) what is dental plaque? What harm can it do. How can the formation of plaque be prevented?


a) Teeth is made up of four different types of material: the enamel, dentin, pulp, and cementum. Enamel covers the crown of the tooth and it is hard substance in the body. it is substance which covers root of the tooth. Where enamel and dentin and is much softer.

b) Tooth decay happens when bacteria is cause acidify inside in your mouth due to that it get attacks on tooth’s surface, or enamel. This can developed small hole called dental caries.

c) a sticky film that coats teeth which contain bacteria it cause due to bacteria which generate acid. And it can prevent by using tooth brush twice a day.

70.) a) Name the main organ of the human digestive system. b) Also name of glands involved in it. c) How do carbohydrates, fats, and proteins get digested in human being?


a) The major parts of the digestive system: Salivary glands. Pharynx. Esophagus. Stomach. Small Intestine. Large Intestine. Rectum. Accessory digestive organs: liver, gallbladder, pancreas.

b) Digestive enzyme can secreted by gland, also in mouth saliva get secreted by salivary glands.

c) Carbohydrates proteins and fats get digested in the intestine by breaking into small units like. Digestion of carbohydrates begins from mouth. Where salivary amylase is secreted and converts starch into sugar. In small intestine carbohydrates get converts into glucose. Glucose get partially digest in stomach but it completely digest in small intestine due to secretion of digestive enzymes like pepsin and trypsin bile get secreted by liver which emulsify fats then fats get broken into globules. lipase enzyme are responsible for this conversion of fats .

Part B Solution


1) Do all cells use oxygen to produce energy?

ANS-NO, all cells cannot produce energy by using aerobic respiration oxygen is needed, but in anaerobic respiration oxygen is not required to produce energy by cells.

2) Name the substance which is produced in anaerobic respiration by an organism but not in aerobic respiration.

ANS- Ethanol is one of the substances which produced in anaerobic respiration by organism. But not in aerobic respiration.

3) Name one organism which can live without oxygen.

ANS-Yeast is the organism which can live without oxygen .hence it use in baking industries. Yeast get respires anaerobically.

4) In which type of respiration aerobic or anaerobic more energy is released?

ANS- Aerobic respiration releases more energy than produce that much energy where it easily produces 38 ATP molecules.

5) Name the substance who’s build up in the muscles during vigorous physical exercise may cause cramps.

ANS- Lactic acid get release when physical exercise does and that is the reason due to lactic acid secretion cramps comes.

6) Which part of roots is involved in the exchange of respiratory gases?

ANS- Root hairs where the lenticels are outermost layer, there only the exchange of gaseous happens.

7) Name the process by which plant parts like roots, stems and leaves get oxygen required for respiration.

ANS- Roots, stems, and leaves take oxygen for respiration by passive diffusion.

8) Name the pores in leaves through which respiratory exchange of gases takes place.

ANS- Exchange of gaseous like carbon dioxide and oxygen occurs through pores called stomata.

9) Name the areas in woody stem through which respiratory exchange of gases takes place.

ANS- From the lenticels gaseous get exchange in woody stem, and here only respiration happens.

10) What is the name of the extensions of the epidermal cells of root which help in respiration?

ANS- Root hairs are elongated outwards from outer layer of cells in which root hairs helps in respiration and absorption.

11) Out of photosynthesis and respiration in plants which process occurs?

  • a) All the time
  • b) Only at day time


  • a) Respiration
  • b) Respiration, and photosynthesis

12) Name the organs of breathing in fish.

ANS- Fish breath with their gills.

13) Name the animal which absorbs oxygen through its skin.

ANS- Frog is the animal who takes oxygen from its skin

14) Name an animal which depends on simple diffusion of gases for breathing,

ANS- Amoeba is animal which depends on simple diffusion of gaseous for breathing.

15) Name two animals which breathe through gills.

ANS- Prawns, fishes are two animals which breathe through gills.

16) The trachea divides into two tubes at its lower end. What is the name of these tubes?

ANS- Bronchi is the lower end tubes which is divided from trachea.

17) Where does the blood absorb oxygen in the human body?

ANS- Alveoli of the lungs is the place where blood absorbs oxygen in the human body.

18) Name the red pigment which carries oxygen in the blood.

ANS- Red blood cells is the pigment which carries oxygen in the blood.

19) Which gases are exchanged in your lungs?

ANS-Carbon dioxide and oxygen these two types of gaseous exchanged in the lung.

20) Where in the lungs does gas exchange take place?

ANS-Alveoli is the sac which is present in lungs where carbon dioxide and oxygen get exchange.

21) What is the name of the tiny air-sacs at the end of the smallest bronchioles in the lungs?

ANS-Alveoli is the smallest tiny sacs which present at the bronchioles in the lungs.

22) What is the other name of the wind-pipe?

ANS- Trachea is also we called wind pipe.

23) What organs are attached to the bronchi?

ANS- Lung is the major organ which attached bronchi

24) In the lungs:

  • a) What substance is taken into the body?
  • b) What substance is removed from the body?


  • a) Oxygen
  • b) Carbon dioxide

25) State whether the following statements are true or false:

  • a) During respiration, the plants take CO2 and release O2.
  • b) Energy can be produced in cells without oxygen,
  • c) Fish and earthworm exchange gases during respiration in the same way.


  • a) false
  • b) True
  • c) False

26) Fill in the following blanks with suitable words:

1) The organs of respiration in man are the _______________

2) The actual exchange of gases takes place in the ______________ of the lungs.

3) Yeast undergoes _____________ respiration whereas Amoeba undergoes _________ respiration.

4) Gills are the breathing organs in _____________________


  1. Lungs
  2. Alveoli
  3. Fermentation, simple diffusion
  4. Fish


Short answer type questions

27) Explain why land plant may die if its roots remain waterlogged for long time.

ANS- Too much water expels all the air from in between soil at root side. Due to that roots get respires anaerobically producing alcohol that’s the reason plants get die


28) What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use anaerobic mode of respiration.


            Aerobic respiration

             Anaerobic respiration

1. Aerobic respiration is takes place in the presence of oxygen .where the metabolic fuel is completely Brocken. 1. Anaerobic respiration takes place in absence of oxygen where the partial breakdown of glucose.
2. Carbon dioxide and water is the end product.


2. End product of anaerobic respiration is alcohol.
3. Example. Plants and lower animals 3.Example.yeast
4. aerobic respiration releases much more Energy 4.anaerobic respiration releases less energy



Yeast, bacteria is the organisms who shows the anaerobic respirations.

29) Name of the final product obtained in the anaerobic respiration if it takes place
a) I a plant like yeast
b) In animal tissue like muscle
ANS- a) lactic acid and ethanol
b) Carbon dioxide, water

30) What type of respiration takes place in human muscles during vigorous physical exercise? Give reason for your answer
ANS- Due to physical exercise energy demand in the body get increases. And that time only aerobic respiration cannot fulfill required our muscles respires anaerobically and it produces small amount of energy. So basically during vigorous physical exercise, a muscle shows anaerobic respiration.

31) Name the type of respiration in which the end process are
a) C2H5OH and CO2
b) CO2 and H2O
c) Lactic acid
Give one example of each case where such a respiration can occurs.

ANS- a) anaerobic respiration-yeast
b) Aerobic respiration-birds, animals
c) It is byproduct of anaerobic respiration –bacteria which present in yogurt

32) Define breathing state the difference between breathing and respiration
ANS- Breathing process is that the taking of air and expelling it from lungs.

Breathing is the process in that we Inhale and exhale air in and out of from our lungs. Respirations that process where oxygen used to breakdown glucose to generate energy which used by the cell function.


It is physical process


it is chemical process

33) What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms? Give example of each.
a) Anaerobic Respiration
This process happens when oxygen is absent. In this case pyruvate is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Best example is yeast which shows fermentation.
b) Aerobic Respiration
In the aerobic respiration, pyruvate get breakdown in presence of oxygen. And gives 3 molecules of carbon dioxide and water. That time energy gets released which is much more than anaerobic respiration. Example. Birds, animals
c) Lack of Oxygen
When body suffers from lack of oxygen, especially during physical exertion in our muscles, pyruvate is getting converted into lactic acid (compounds which contain 3 carbons). And lactic acid formed in muscles cramp will caused.

34) Explain why when air is taken in and let out during breathing the lungs always contain a residual volume of air

ANS- Residual volume of air is important to prevent collapsing of lung. During breathing cycle there is enough time to absorbed oxygen and release carbon dioxide.

35) Explain why it is dangerous to inhale air contain carbon monoxide.

ANS-Carbon monoxide has ability to bind strongly with the hemoglobin. And if it is get binds then it resist carrying oxygen. And ultimately oxygen get reduces from the body and human being get unconscious or die.

36) Describe the process of respiration in amoeba

ANS-Amoeba shows respiration through cell membrane. Amoeba takes oxygen dissolved in surrounding water through its plasma membrane by process of diffusion. That diffused oxygen gas used by amoeba for various functions. And that oxygen breakdown the complex food into simple form. While this metabolic reaction oxygen get converts into carbon dioxide and it get liberated by diffusion ultimately oxygen is must to respire amoeba. Hence we concluded amoeba respires aerobically.

37) State the three common features of all respiratory organs like skin, gills, and lungs


  • a) they have large surface area to take oxygen
  • b) By diffusion process they get exchange the gaseous
  • c) They have thin walls for taking air which use further in respiration

38) Describe process of respiration in fish

ANS- Gills are the main respiratory organ which works in fish for respiration. During this process it takes oxygen from the water. Here gills work as filter so they extract  oxygen and it passes to all parts through blood.

39) What would be the consequences of deficiency of hemoglobin in our body?

ANS- Hemoglobin is the respiratory pigment where it transports oxygen to the body cells. If deficiency of hemoglobin happens may cause anemia to human being.

40) Describe the process of respiration of the following parts

a) Roots b) stems c) leave


  • a) Respiration in roots: The roots having extensions of epidermal cells of a root called root hair which is in contact with the air in the roots takes the required oxygen from soil particles by the process of diffusion. Oxygen diffuses at a site of root hairs that reaches to all the part of cells. Carbon dioxide gas produced through the root hairs by the process of diffusion. Thus, the respiration in roots occurs by diffusion of respiratory gases by root hairs.
  • b) Respiration in stems: The oxygen from the air diffuses into the stem of a herbaceous plant through stomata and that reaches to all the cells. The carbon dioxide produced diffuses out through stomata. The stems of herbaceous plants take place through stomata.
  • c) Respiration in leaves: The leaves have tiny pores called stomata. Where the exchange of respiratory gases takes place by diffusion. Oxygen from air diffuses into a leaf through stomata and that reaches to all the cells, where it is used for respiration and the carbon dioxide produced diffuses out from the leaf by stomata pores.


41) a) What meant by aquatic and terrestrial animals? b) From where do the aquatic and terrestrial animals obtained oxygen for breathing and respiration.


a) Aquatic animals which survive in water by breathing dissolved oxygen. Example: – fishes, crabs

they can’t survive if they are out of water.

Terrestrial animals which easily survive on earth or land. Example: – tiger, human

b) Aquatic animals get oxygen from water which is in dissolved form. Terrestrial animals get oxygen from the plants or atmosphere.

42) Why do fish die when it taken out of the water?

ANS- When water reaches to fish mouth that time via gills oxygen get absorbed by fish and then carbon dioxide is released so basically this is the process for respiration. And when fish comes out outside the water at that time oxygen source get cut off and respiration does not occurs which causes death.

43) Why the rate of breathing in aquatic organisms much faster than terrestrial

ANS- Oxygen level in water is much lower than the air. So fish like animals getting oxygen from dissolved state form. So less amount of oxygen only they get hence there breathing cycle is very fast. And oxygen level is much higher in atmosphere because air density is less than water so the atmospheric oxygen level is much high than the dissolved form.

44) Name the energy currency in the living organisms. When and where is the produce?

ANS- ATP is called energy currency which is produced at the end of respiration in mitochondrial site

45) Explain why plants have low energy needs as compare to animals

ANS-Lots of energy of animals is loss due to movement. And they have to move for searching food but plants makes their own food and their energy also not get lost by moving. They stuck in one place.

46) Explain how benefit deep sea divers if humans had also would gill.

ANS- Human beings can easily live under water when they have gills, even without carrying oxygen cylinders because their gills help to extract dissolved oxygen under the water. And respiration process being never stopped.


Long answer type questions

47) a) what is the function of respiratory system
b) what are the major organs of respiratory system in human
c) draw a labeled diagram of human respiratory organs
a) Lungs and respiratory system allow us to breath. Via nose we take air known as inhalation. Oxygen gets extracted by lungs which can further circulate to whole body. Hemoglobin carries oxygen by taking oxygen from the alveoli site which is the part of lungs. In site of alveoli carbon dioxide and oxygen get exchange. This whole process we called respiration. From respiration process many more steps take place and energy get forms.
b) Air ways, lungs and blood vessels are main respiratory organs. And many sub organs is the part of that main organs like nose, nasal passage, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.


48) a) explain how the air we breathe in gets cleaned while passing through the nasal passage

b) Why do the walls of trachea not collapsed when there is less air in it?

c) How are the oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange in our body during respiration?

d) How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the exchange in our body during respiration?


  • a) Air comes in the body via nose. In nostrils nasal hairs is present or cilia and mucous which helps to filter dust and impurities which we breath. Nasal cavity makes the air inhaled moist and then it blocks dust or unwanted ultimately from cilia and mucous we easily resist particles.
  • b) The trachea also we called windpipe which is cartilaginous. And also permits the entry of air. The trachea reaches out from the larynx and extended as branches in to the two essential bronchi. At the top of the trachea, a completed ring of cartilage is situated; this is the main protecting shield which protects the trachea from damaged or collapsed when the flow of air is not homogenous.
  • c) Whenever oxygen gets exchange that time oxygen enters to blood stream from lungs. At same time carbon dioxide passes from blood to the lungs. That is happens in the lungs where the thin small sac like balloons present, which we called alveoli. Their only blood capillaries network shows the exchange of both gaseous.
  • d) Lungs are designed such a way that they lined by thin membrane there were smaller bronchioles present, balloon like structure called alveoli where the blood network of blood capillaries increases surface area to exchange gaseous.

49) a)Give the main points of differences between respiration in plants and respiration in plants and respiration in animals

b) Describe the exchange of gaseous which takes place in leaves of plants during daytime and night time

c) What type of respiration takes place a) yeast b) humans


a) Respiration in Plants: -All parts of plants such as root, stem, leaf, flower and bud take part in respiration. They have no any special respiratory system. Rate of respiration is low. Exchange of gases organ is different in plant and animals. Gaseous exchange in plants takes place through Stomata.

Respiration in Animals:- Animals have special type of respiratory organs. Respiration rate is high. Breathing process takes place in animals. Exchange of gases takesplace in special type of organs alveoli which is sub organ of lung.

b) During plant shows both process photosynthesis and respiration. For the plant respiration, leaves take in oxygen and release carbon dioxide to surrounding. And at night time, the exchange of gases looks like: Oxygen diffuses inside and carbon dioxide diffuses outside

c)In yeast anaerobic respiration happens and form ethanol .In human beings aerobic respiration takes place.


50) a) Respiration is vital function of body justify statement

b) What are the main differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Give example

c) Which contains more carbon dioxide exhaled air or inhaled air?

ANS- a) Respiration is important because it gives energy for living organisms to do all important functions and maintain their life. Energy is required for cell division, to sustain cell life by various processes.

b) Aerobic respiration is takes place in the presence of oxygen .where the metabolic fuel is completely Brocken. Example. Plants and lower animals

Anaerobic respiration takes place in absence of oxygen where the partial breakdown of glucose. Example. Yeast

c) Blood contains some carbon dioxide which is waste product that is transferred to the air via lungs, known as exhalation. That is the reason exhaled air contains less oxygen and more carbon dioxide than the inhaled air.


51) a) Why diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of large multicellular organisms like humans?

b) What type of arrangement exists in the bodies of large animal to meet their oxygen requirement adequately?

c) What terrestrial animal’s advantages is over the aquatic animal with the basis of oxygen intake for a respiration.


a) In human beings multicellular organism are with complex body structure. Oxygen requirement cannot fulfilled by diffuse because diffusion process is slow. In multicellular organisms, the cells are not contacted directly with the outside environment as in unicellular organism there are special type of cell function that help to meet the oxygen requirements of the case of multicellular organism the body is made of particular type of body organ ,tissue system to take oxygen.

b) The body takes carbon dioxide from cells back to lungs. The arrangement in the bodies of large animals to fulfill oxygen requirement is a respiratory pigment which we called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin holds the oxygen molecule and transport it various part of body.

c) Aquatic animal like fishes have taken dissolved oxygen that from the water. And the concentration of oxygen in atmosphere is less than water. Also, the solubility of the oxygen get affects by various factors like pressure, temperature, contamination. Aquatic animals, breath very fast because in water there is no sufficient oxygen. Some of the fishes have even developed the alternate way of breathing by coming up to the water surface and take a large dive below water. Terrestrial animals have get oxygen from atmosphere and they have intake and outtake of the air just depending on the difference in the pressure inside the lungs and the outside temperature. Therefore less energy is used for the respiration process in case of terrestrial animals.


Very short answer type questions

1.) What is name of tissue which transport:

a) Food in plant

b) Water and mineral in plant

ANS-a) Phloem is the tissue who responsible for transporting food in plants.

b) Water and minerals are transported through Xylem tissue

2.) What substances are transported in plants by:

  1. a) Xylem vessels and tracheid’s
  2. b) Sieve tubes or phloem

ANS-a)the xylem vessels transport water and nutrients to plants.

  1. b) Phloem transports carbohydrates to whole plant body.

3.) Which organ acts as pump in the circulatory system?

ANS-heart acts as a pump in the circulatory system in our body.

4.) Veins and arteries carry blood. Which of these carry blood

  1. a) Away from the heart?
  2. b) Back to the heart?

ANS-a) arteries carry blood away from heart

  1. b) Veins carry blood back to heart

5.) Where does blood absorb oxygen?

ANS-Blood absorbs oxygen in alveoli which is part of lungs. This is the tiny air sac present in the lungs.

6.) What stops blood from flowing backwards through the heart?

ANS- Valves are present in between each atrium and ventricle there only prevents the flowing of blood backwards through heart.

7.) Name the largest artery and largest vein in our body

ANS-The largest artery presentin the body is Aortawhich pumps oxygenated blood, And blood get transport to whole body. The largest vein in the body is Vena Cavathat returns deoxygenated blood from body to heart.

8.) What gaseous waste products are excreted by plants?

ANS-Oxygen is the waste product that is excreted by plants during photosynthesis which is in gaseous form.

9.) Where is the dirty blood in our body filtered?

ANS-Kidneys filtered the dirty blood from our body. Kidneys clean our blood by filtering it to remove unwanted substances.

10.) Name the procedure used in the working of artificial kidney.

ANS-The artificial kidney works on the special type procedure of dialysis known as hemodialysis.

11.) From the following terms choose one terms include the other four :

Plasma, Platelets, Blood, RBC, WBC

ANS-Blood is made up of platelets, RBC, WBC, and plasma

12.) What are the components of the transport system is highly organized plants?

ANS-Plants transport system made up of two major components. These are conducting tissues one is xylem and other is phloem. Roots and stomata also includes in this system.

13.) Out of xylem and phloem which one carries materials:

a) Upwards as well as downwards?

b) Only upwards

ANS-a)Phloem carries materials upward as well as downward.

b) Xylem carries water, minerals only in upward direction. Transportation should be rootsto the plant top.

14.) Name two liquids which helps in the transport of substances in the human body

ANS-The two liquids that help to human body for the transportation.

Lymph fluid-Lymph fluids throw out toxins and unwanted materials from the body.

Blood- Blood is red in color which carries oxygen.

15.) What is the other name of vein?

ANS-Veins is called capacitance vessels.


16.) Name of the conducting tissue of plants which is made of sieve tube along with companion cells.

ANS-Phloem is a conducting tissue which consists of sieve-tube with companion cells.

17.) Name the conducting tissue in plants which is made of

  1. a) Living cells
  2. b) Dead cells

ANS-a) phloem is made up of living cells.

  1. b) Xylem is made up of deadcells.

18.) State the terms used for transport of food from leaves to other parts of plants.

ANS-The process by which food is transported from the leaves to the other parts of the plant is known as translocation.

19.) Which process in plants is accomplished by utilizing energy from ATP: transport of water and minerals transport of food?

ANS-Food transport or translocation is the process where food requires Energy which is comes from ATP. The plant makes their food in the form of glucose. This food is transported to all plant body by phloem tissue and xylem tissue. The transportation of food by the use of the phloem tissue. The transportation of the organic solutes from one to other parts in case of plants is called translocation.

20.) Name the two types of transport system in the human beings.

ANS-two types of transport systems mainly observe in human being that is Blood circulatory system and lymphatic system.

21.) Name the waste gas release by the plants

  1. a) During the day time
  2. b) During night time

ANS- (a) Plants excreted oxygen as waste product by the photosynthesis process but it happens only during the day time. (b) Plant release carbon dioxide gas as waste product by the respiration process during the night time.

22.) Name of the animal having single circulation of blood and other having double circulation.

ANS-in the fish body single circulation of blood system observe and in frog has double circulation of blood.

23.) State whether the following statement

a) Some organisms store waste in body parts

b) The value of systolic pressure is always lower than that of diastolic pressure

ANS-a) False

b) True

24.) Name the two waste product of human body which are produced in the body cells

ANS- Carbon dioxide the gas waste product which releases out of the body via nose. And urea is the solid waste product which excreted by the annul opening.

25.) What is the role of glomerulus in the kidney?

ANS-The glomerulus is responsible for blood filtration in kidney.

26.) What happens to the glucose which enters to the nephron tubule along with the filtrate?

ANS-Size of glucose molecule is very small. Hence, when it enters into nephron along with the filtrate during excretion, it is travelled into the nephron tubule along with urea.  That time tubular reabsorption of the glucose and water get happens. so important ions from water get reabsorbed. Such a way urea and concentrated ions we called salt get remove out from the body.

27.) Name of the two parts of plant trough which its gaseous waste products are released into the air.

ANS-Stomata present on leaves and lenticels present in the bark these two plant parts work for releases gaseous waste products into the air.

28.) What is the other name of high blood pressure?

ANS-hypertension is the other name of high blood pressure.

29.) Fill in the blanks with suitable words

a) Gums and resins are……………………… product of plants

b) Bowman’s capsule and tubule taken together make a …………….

c) The organs which extract the nitrogenous waste from the blood are………..

d) The extracellular fluid which always flows from body tissues to the heart is called…………………

e) The ………………. Blood cells make antibodies whereas ………………….. blood cells helps in respiration

ANS-a) Waste

b) Nephron

c) Kidney

d) Lymph

e) White, Red

Short Answer Type Questions:

30.) What is the xylem tissue? Name the two kinds of cells in xylem tissues. State whether these cells are living or dead

ANS-Xylem is tubular structure which one of the main transporting systemspresents in plants. It conducts water and minerals from root to shoot of the plant. Two types of cell found in xylem which is always in dead in nature. And name of these a) parenchyma, b) fibers

31.) What is a phloem tissue? Phloem content two types of cells joined side by this two type of cells. State whether it dead or alive?

ANS- Phloem tissue is a vascular tissue which is very important transporting system present in plant. Where it works in the transportation of food materials which made by plants. Phloem is made up of many cells which is joined end to end and form long tubes. Sieve tubes and companion cell are the functional cells present in the phloem tissue and these are in living form or we called these are the living cells.

32.) a) What is transpiration?

b) What do you mean by translocation with respect to transport plants?

c) Which plant tissue is involved in translocation: xylem or phloem?

ANS-a) the evaporation of water from the leaves of the plants is called transpiration. (b) The transport of food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant is called translocation. (c) Phloem.

33.) a) What are difference between the transport of materials in xylem and phloem?

b) draw a labeled diagram of

i.) xylem vessels

ii.) sieve tube phloem




1. Xylem is vascular system where it Transports water and minerals.

2. Xylem transports materials in upward direction from root to shoot.

3. Two types of cell found in xylem which is always in dead in nature. And name of these a) parenchyma, b) fibers

1. Phloem is the vascular system where food gets transports.

2. Phloem Transports food materials in all the directions.

3. Sieve tubes and companion cell are the functional cells present in the phloem tissue

34.) Match the terms in column I with their uses in column II

Column I Column II

i) Heart i)pipes for transport in humans

ii) Arteries and veins ii) clotting of blood

iii) Xylem vessels iii) pumping organ

iv) RBC iv) water transport in plants

v) Platelets v) carrier of oxygen


i)Heart -pumping organ

ii) Arteries and veins- pipes for transport in humans

iii)Xylem vessels -water transport in plants

iv) RBC -carrier of oxygen

v) Platelets – clotting of blood

35.) Define the excretion. Name the excretory unit of kidney.

ANS-Excretion is that biological process which helps in the removal of waste metabolic material from the body. Nephron is the basic unit of excretion.

36.) a) What job is done by the kidney?

b) What is the kidney excreting?

c) What is the name of tubes which connect the kidneys to bladder?

d) What does the bladder in our body do?


a) Kidneys remove wastes and extra fluid from your body.

b) Two major compounds that the kidney excrete waste product and toxins from the body. Example – urea

c) Uterus is the tube which connects kidney and bladder.

d) Main function of bladder to store urine

37.) Why do some peoples need to use dialysis machine? What does the machine do?

ANS-If in case of kidney failure body cant able to filter blood periodically. But using dialysis machine we can easily remove accumulated wastes from the body. The dialysis machine cleans the blood by removing the nitrogenous wastes products from it.

38.) What is the liquid part of the blood called? What is the function of platelets in the blood?

ANS-The liquid part present in blood called plasma which is consist of water, salts, and protein. Over half of blood is nothing but plasma.

Platelets are the cells which are freely circulate within our blood.And binds together when they body get damaged. When you get a cut then platelets bind to the cut site of the damaged blood vessels. So there were develops a blood clots

39.) a) How many types of blood vessels are there in human body? Name themb) why does the heart need valves?

ANS-There is three kinds of blood vessels: arteries, veins, and capillaries. Each of these plays a very specific role in the circulation process. The valves prevent the backward flow of blood.

40.) a)dialysis machine contains long tubes coiled in tank containing dialyzing solution

i) Of what substance are the tubes made?

ii) What does the dialyzing solution contain?

iii) Name the main waste which passes into dialyzing solution


i) These tubes are made for remove unwanted materials from the body..

ii) Dialysis contains chemical substances.

iii) From the dialysis urine get removes out.

41.) State the differences artery vein and capillary


1.) Arteries

1.) These blood vessels have thick walls and it carries blood from the heart to whole body parts.

2.) All the arteries hold oxygenated blood, except pulmonary artery.

3.) They do not have valves.

2.) Veins 

1.) Veins have thin walls and carries blood from different body parts to the heart.

2.) Veins carry deoxygenated blood,except the pulmonary vein.

3.) They have valves and prevent backflow of blood

3.) Capillaries

1.) Capillaries are narrow bloodvessels which are thin walls, they connect arteries and veins.

2.) As it connects arteries and veins, therefore, it contains both oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

3.) They do not have valves.

42.) a) What is the upper part of heart called?

b) What are the lower part of heart called?

c) What is the name of blood vessels which connect arteries to veins?

d) i) which side of the heart pumps blood into the lungs?

ii) Which side of the heart pumps blood into entire body except the lungs?


a) A normal heart has two upper and two lower chambers. The upper chambers the right and left atria which always receives incoming blood. And in lower chambers the right and left ventricles pump blood out of your heart.

b) The heart has four chambers, two upper (atrium) and two lower (ventricle), with one atrium and one ventricle on both the right and left side of the heart.

c) Capillaries

d) i.) The right side of your heart receives oxygen-poor blood from your veins and pumps it to your lungs, where it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. The left side of your heart receives oxygen-rich blood from your lungs and pumps it through your arteries to the rest of your body.

ii.) The left ventricle is the main pumping chamber of the heart. It pumps blood to all parts of the body except the lungs.

43.) a) What are the methods used by plants to get rid of their waste products?

b) How are waste products excrete in amoeba?


a) Methods

1.) Plants get rid of water by transpiration process

2.) Storing of waste product may be in vacuoles or in leaves which fall off.

3.) Resin and gums are always stored in xylem.

4.) Sometime waste material may be excreted in the soil.

5.) And some waste product can move out through the stomata by the diffusion

b) Amoeba possesses waste from osmoregulatory organelle called contractile vacuole.Where they collects water, wastes. That time body getsswells up, and that waste get reaches to the surface of outer membrane of amoeba body. Then body membrane getbursts. And releases waste product outside. Ultimately we conclude that the main excretion happens in amoeba through body surface by simple diffusion.

44.) a) What is lymph? State two major functions of lymph

b) What is mean by the saying blood pressure of a person is 120/80.


a) Lymph is the fluid like substance whose flows through the lymphatic system, a system composed of lymph vessels and intervening lymph nodes. And it is responsible for the removal and filtration of interstitial fluid from tissues absorbs and transports fatty acids. From the digestive system and transporting system many of the cells are get involved for supports the immune system via lymph.

b) 120 /80 mmhg is the top amount of pressure exerts in our arteries during the contraction heart muscle. This is called systolic pressure. The bottom of our blood pressure when our heart beats the muscles these type beats we called the diastolic pressure.

48.) What is meant by systolic pressure and diastolic pressure? What are their normal values?

ANS-Systolic pressure is the pressure at which the blood leaves the heart through the aorta, during contraction phase. Diastolic pressure is the minimum pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase of the heart. The normal systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg, while the normal diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg.

49.) a) What is meant by heart beat? What is the usual heart beat rate at rest?

b) What is change occurs in heart beats of person runs for a while? Why?


a) Pulse rate, also we called as heart rate, is that count of heart beats per minute. normal heart rate should be in between 60 to 100 beats per minute,but it can vary by minute to minute due to various physical conditions.

b) When a person runs for a while at that time heart rate get increases. Reason is that heart pumps because body to provide nutrients and remove waste from the body’s tissues due to that pressure heart pumping speed is fast.


a)What is blood? Why is it red?

b) State the function of blood in our body

c) Name the circulatory fluid in the human body other than blood


a) Blood-Blood is very necessary for our life. Blood circulates through our body and delivers essential substances like oxygen and nutrients to the bodies. Human blood is red because of hemoglobin, which is carried in the blood and functions to transport oxygen.Hemoglobin is rich in iron that’s the reason blood is red in color.

b) Blood has work with different-different functions where in that includes transporting of oxygen and nutrients to the lungs and tissues. Forming blood clots to prevent excess blood loss which is done by platelets. Blood carries antibodies which can easily fight with infection.

c) Lymph is the other circulatory fluid which flows through the bodies from lymphatic vessels.

51.) a) What is meant by human circulatory system? Name the organs of circulatory system in humans.

b) Draw a diagram of human heart and labeled its part

c) What is meant by the terms single circulation and double circulation


  1. a) The blood circulatory system (cardiovascular system) which gives nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body. That system made up of the heart and the blood vessels. The arteries carry blood away from the heart and the veins carry it back to the heart. The system of blood vessels seems like a tree. The smallest arteries end in a network of tiny vessels which we called as the capillary network.

There is not only one system. Blood circulatory system in the human body works with one more system which getsconnected and in that system systemic circulation happens where the organs, tissues and blood get oxygen with vital material. In the pulmonary circulation we take fresh oxygen into blood. At the same time, carbon dioxide is released from the blood.

d) Single circulation means, if blood flow from heart to body for only once. Such away there were complete the circulation is called single circulation.

e) Double circulation means, when blood flow from heart to body for two times for the completing only one circulation is called double that blood flow from body to heart and then heart to lungs and again lungs to heart. Such a ways process get complete with one circulation blood flow twice through heart.

52.) Describe the working of human blood circulatory system with the help of suitable diagram which shows all the steps involved


Following steps are included in the functioning of human circulatory system:

(i) The pulmonary vein brings the oxygenated blood from the lungs in the left atrium of the heart.

(ii) Left atrium contracts and pumps blood into the left ventricle through valve.

(iii) When the left ventricle contracts, the oxygenated blood enters the main artery called aorta. The blood travels from the main artery to larger and smaller arteries into the capillary network.

(iv) The aorta transports the blood to all the organs of the body except the lungs. The oxygenated blood releases oxygen, nutrients and other substances and takes on carbon dioxide and waste substances. The deoxygenated blood enters the vena cava which carry it to the right atrium of the heart.

(v) Right atrium pumps deoxygenated blood into the right ventricle through the valve.

(vi) When the right ventricle contracts, the deoxygenated blood enters the lungs through pulmonary artery and releases carbon dioxide and absorbs fresh oxygen from air. The blood becomes oxygenated again and is sent to the left atrium of heart by pulmonary vein for circulation in the body. This whole process is repeated continuously.

53) a) Name the red pigment which carries oxygen in the blood

b) Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?

c) How many chambers are there in heart in amphibians, in mammals, in fish?

d) Describe the circulatory system in fish?


a) The red pigment which present in the blood is hemoglobin which carries oxygen.Hemoglobin molecule made up of iron complex which holds oxygen. Hemoglobin is called metalloproteinase.

b) The circulatory system of mammals and birds is more efficient for the maintain constant body temperature. Separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds is necessary.

c) Fish have a two-chambered heart with unidirectional circulation. Amphibians have a three-chambered heart and mammals have double circulation.

d) Fish have a single circuit for blood flow. And heart is made by two-chambers where single atrium and a single ventricle only present. The atrium collects blood from the body and the ventricle pumps the blood with the help of gills and then gas exchange occurs this is called gill circulation.

54.) a) What is lymphatic system ? What is the function?

b) What is blood pressure? What are the two factors used to express the blood pressure of person?

c) Name the main nitrogenous waste in the human blood. How is it removed from the blood?


a) The lymphatic system is a network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and the unwanted materials. The lymphatic system collects excess fluid which comes from cells and tissues. Cells and tissue drains the many substances which is in fluid form and that get collects through whole body and returns it to the bloodstream then it willrecirculate to whole body.

b) Blood pressure is the pressure at which the blood is pumped around the body by the heart. This always expressed in two factors which we called systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.

c) The nitrogenous waste in human blood is urea. Site of Liver, toxic ammonia get converts into much less toxic urea where it is excreted by urine. Urea is developed in liver. But then it goes to kidneys for reabsorption and excretion purpose.

55.) c) What is the function of excretory system in humans?

Answer: c) The excretory system is the system of an organism’s body that performs the function of excretion, the bodily process of discharging wastes. The food that we eat divides into two parts solid and liquid waste. The solid waste is excreted as faces through anus. The salts present in our body is mixed with water and sent to the kidneys for further treatment. The kidneys have nephrons which act as a filter and send it to the urinary bladder through ureters. The urine is then passed out by urethra.

a) Describe the mechanism of urine formation in human excretory system. Draw a labeled diagram to illustrate your answer.

b) Where is urine carried through uterus?

c) What is urethra?

ANS-Urine is formed inside the kidney in the nephron. Nephron is a functional unit of kidney. Blood with waste like urea enters into glomerulus. Glomerulus filters the blood, Water, urea, and other salts like glucose and then it goes to renal tubule. This is yellow in color liquid state called urine.

b) Ureter is duct which is long, narrow ducts that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. Urinary bladder stores the urine and it comes from the kidneys. Urine enters the bladder via the ureters and removes out via the urethra.

c) Urethra, duct that transmits urine from the bladder to the outside of the body during urination.

57.) a) What is meant by dialysis? What types of patient are put on dialysis?

b) Explain the principle of dialysis with the help of a labeled diagram


a) Dialysis is a process where the artificial filtration of blood cans happenens.Connecting a dialysis machine to body and filtering blood by removing waste material. Patients who have both their Kidneys damaged or failed to work properly are put on Dialysis.

b) The process of Dialysis is based on the principle of diffusion and ultrafiltration. Where it runs across a semi-permeable membrane it means this membrane separates blood from dialysis fluid. This membrane allows passing or filtering of some materials by the process of diffusion.

58.) a)why is transport of materials necessary in an organism plant or animals

b) What is need of special tissue or organs for transport of substance in plants and animals?

c) How are waters and minerals transported in plants?

d) How is food transported in plants?


(a) Transportation process in organisms is very necessary to absorbs all essential substances and transporting to all parts body.

(b) Special tissues and organs are needed for the transport of substances. Because thesetypesof tissues and organs can separatesand absorbs the essential substances like food, oxygen, water, etc.

(c) Water and minerals are transported to various parts of the plant by xylem tissues which also called xylem vessels and tracheid. Plants take water from the soil with the help of roots. The roots have root hairs which absorb water and minerals from the soil by diffusion process and then pass to cell to cell and by the osmosis through epidermis, endodermisroot cortex, and then reach the root xylem. The water enters the root xylem then it enters to stem xylem and finally it to reaches the leaves.

(d) Transportation of food from the leaves to other parts of the plant is called translocation. Phloem tissue transports food from the leaves to the other parts of the plant. The movement of food in phloem takes place by taking energy. The glucose can develop in the leaves which are loaded into the sieve tubes. For that process phloem uses ATP. Then that food gets travels with the water. Water enters the sieve tube containing glucose with high pressure and pushes that food to all the parts where low pressure is present. This is how the food is transported according to the needs of the plant.


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Updated: May 28, 2022 — 4:03 pm

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