Isotope

Isotope

The isotope are the atom of same element which have same atomic number but different mass number.

OR

Atom of the same elements having same number of protons but different number of neutron.

Atomic number:

Atomic number is The number of protons present inside the nucleus of atom.

Atomic mass:

Atomic mass is number of protons and number of neutron present inside the nucleus of atom.

For example: elements can be written as following

X= symbol of elements

Z=   atomic number

A=   Mass number

Example: carbon

That isotope is differ only in the number of neutron present inside the nucleus.

  • Isotope of Hydrogen:

As each them has atomic number 1 ,  each of them contain 1 proton in the nucleus. ( and one electron in the extra nuclear  region) they differ in the number of neutron, protium has no neutron, deuterium has( formula n=A-P , (A = atomic masa and P= number of protons) ) so 2-1=1neutron while tritium has 3-1=2 neutron  in the nucleus.

  • Isotope of Carbon:

carbon has mainly two isotope represented, 126C    , and 146C .  Both have same atomic number that is 6 but different mass number that is 12&14.

The isotope 126C has 6 protons and 12-6 = 6 neutron in the nucleus. While

The isotope 146C has 6 protons but 14-6= 8 neutron

                                      Carbon-12                                  Carbon-14

  • Isotope of chlorine:

There are Isotope of chlorine , The isotope 3517Cl has 17 protons (A-P=n) 35-17= 18 neutron in the nucleus while The isotope3717Cl has 17 protons 37-17=20 neutron inside the nucleus.

Characteristics of isotope:

  • Same atomic number or same number of protons or same  number of electron.
  • Different mass number or number of neutron:

The isotope of elements have different mass number and hence different  number of neutron present inside the nucleus.

  • Same chemical properties:

Same electronic configuration and hence same number of valence electron so the chemical properties depends on valence electron ,  therefore they have same chemical properties.

  • Different physical properties:

Since isotope of elements have different mass number so different physical properties like melting point, boiling point, density etc.

Question Answer

1) What is isotope?

Answer: The isotope are the atom of same element  which have same atomic number but different mass number.

2) What is Mass number?

Answer: Atomic mass is number of protons and number of neutron present inside the nucleus of atom.

3) Explain Carbon isotope?

Answer: Isotope of Carbon:

carbon has mainly two isotope represented, 126C    , and 146C .  Both have same atomic number that is 6 but different mass number that is 12&14.

The isotope 126C has 6 protons and 12-6 = 6 neutron in the nucleus. While

The isotope 146C has 6 protons but 14-6= 8 neutron

4) Explain characteristics of isotope?

Answer: • Same atomic number or same  number of protons or same  number of electron.

  • Different mass number or number of neutron:

The isotope of elements have different mass number and hence different  number of neutron present inside the nucleus.

  • Same chemical properties:

Same electronic configuration and hence same number of valence electron since the chemical properties depends on valence electron ,  therefore they have same chemical properties.

  • Different physical properties:

Since isotope of elements have different mass number so different physical properties like melting point, boiling point, density etc.


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