Dr PS Verma VK Aggarwal Class 9 Biology 5th Chapter Why Do We Fall Ill Solution

Dr PS Verma Dr. VK Aggarwal Solution Class 9 Biology 5th Chapter – “Why Do We Fall Ill” in here.

Short answer Type Questions (Carrying 2 marks each) Page No. 308

(1) The difference between healthy and disease free are follows:

Healthy Disease free
(i) It is a state to complete physical, mental and social well being. (i) It is a state of absence of discomfort or derangement in any part of body.
(ii) Depends upon the individual as well as on physical and social environmental factors. (ii) Related to the individual only.

(2) The immediate health problems after disaster includes suffering of trapped people, people may suffer from fractures, burns and asthma due to dust particles arising from buildings. Contaminated water can also cause other health issues.

(3) The provisions are made by local authorities to provide clean water:

(i) A large filter plant is placed near the Locality.

(ii) Chlorine is used to process water as it cleanses the water.

(iii) The Boilers are present in the filter plant where the water is first boiled then it is ready for drinking.

(iv) Deep Tube well is placed in about distance of 1000 meter.

(4) The provisions are made by local authorities for solid waste management:

(i) Public dustbin is placed in about 400 m.

(ii) Vermi-composting

(iii) Recycling system

(iv) Power Generation

(v) Sweeping

(5) The difference between symptoms and Signs are following:

(i) Symptoms indicate the presence of disease whereas, Signs provide info about the presence of particular disease.

(ii) Symptoms are a collective indication of a number of diseases in a particular part of organ whereas, Signs are different for different disease.

(6) The casual organisms of the following disease are follows:

Tuberculosis – Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Kala-azar – Leishmania (protozoa).

Malaria – Plasmodium.

Measles – Virus.

Athlete’s foot – Fungi.

Cholera – Vibrio Cholerae.

(7) (i) Sexual contact with unknown people should be avoided.

(ii) The common razor at the barber’s shop should not be used.

(8) Carrier is an individual which has the disease, it is capable of transmitting the disease to a new individual.

Example: A human with HIV, who can transmit the virus to another healthy individual is an example of a carrier.

Vector is an organism which is capable of transmitting disease from infected individual to new individual without having the disease.

Example: Anopheles mosquito that carries malaria parasites between humans is an example of a vector.

(9) Organ Specific Manifestation:- These are the diseases caused in the same organ or organ system as the point of entry of the microbe. Example: Tuberculosis which enters through the nose and affects the lungs. (Both are organs of the respiratory system)

Tissue Specific Manifestation:- These are the diseases caused in a different organ as the point of entry. Example:- Japanese Encephalitis which enters through the blood but affects the brain.

(10) When Microbes enter our body, they begin to multiply and cause infection.

As a result of infection, the cells of our body get damaged and signs and symptoms of illness appear.

Our immune system comes into action in response to infection and recruits many cells to affected tissue to kill off the disease causing microbes.

This recruitment process is called inflammation. Due to the effect of this process swelling, pain and fever occur.

(11) This is because the patient body cannot resist the attack of pathogens of secondary infections since patient’s natural defence mechanism gets destroyed by an aids virus.

(12) Public hygiene is one basic key to the prevention of infectious diseases. Thus in this method of prevention of diseases following practices are adopted:

(i) To avoid exposure to air borne microbes, adopt living conditions that are not overcrowded.

(ii) To prevent exposure to water-borne microbes, safe drinking water should be provided.

(13) There are many diseases that cannot be cured. No medicines are already not doscovered to treat them Ex. AIDS or Cancer.

So, it is better not to get the disease rather than to cure it. If we can prevent the disease to occur then no medicines are required. And it is also true that over eating of medicine also harmful and it can be destroy other organs or may be side effects can occur.

Thus it is better to prevent the disease to occur than to cure it by applying medicines. Hence prevention is better than cure.

(14) Vaccines help a body’s immune system prepare in advance to fight infectious illnesses and potentially deadly diseases caused by infectious agents or their by-products.

Ex. These days there is no reported case of small pox anywhere around the world. But as recent as 100 years ago, epidemics were quite prevalent.

(15) Three disease caused by bacteria are: Tuberculosis, Cholera, Typhoid.

Three disease caused by Virus are: Influenza, Jaundice, AIDS.

(16) Various ways to set dehydration during diarrhea:

(i) Complete bed rest should be ensured till the illness is fully controlled.

(ii) For treating diarrhoea anti-microbial drugs and anti diarrhoea agents should be used.

(iii) Saline drip may be given intravenously to maintain fluid and electrolytes in the body. Alternatively ORS (Oral rehydration Solution) may be given to the patient periodically.

(17) The symptoms which will help the doctor to confirm malarial are following:

(i) Patient should suffer headache, nausea, muscular pain etc.

(ii) Patient should felt extreme cold and shivers.

(iii) Patient should have high fever, faster respiration and heart beat.

(18) Some method of prevention of malarial are following:

(i) Wire-gauge should be used on doors and windows of houses to prevent entry of mosquitoes.

(ii) Insect repellents should be used to prevent mosquito bites.

(iii) One should sleep mosquito nets.

(19) The disease name is AIDS.

Virus is responsible for this disease.

How Does it Spread:

The AIDS disease usually spreads through unprotected sexual contacts.

The AIDS disease also spread through the use of infected needles for injections.

An AIDS infected mother can transmit the virus to her child during pregnancy or during birth.

(20) Diarrhoea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faeces.

Symptoms:

The main symptoms is frequently loose motion and vomiting which lead to dehydration.

Prevention: Eatables product should be covered. Hands should be washed with soap and water before eating any food.

Control: Complete bed rest should be ensured till the illness is fully controlled. For treating Diarrhoea anti microbial drugs and anti diarrhoea agents should be used.

(21) This disease also called hydrophobia due to patient feels restless, does excessive salivation, has a choking feeling and finds difficulty in the intake of even liquid food, Since patient also fear of water.

(22) Pulse Polio Program: This program forms the largest single day public health project. Pulse means a dose of a substance especially when applied over a short period of time. This program uses Oral Polio Vaccine.

Long Answer Questions Answers (Carrying 5 marks each)

(1) Human beings live in societies. Our social environment therefore plays an important role in our individual health. We live in Villages / town / cities. In such places our physical environment is decided by our social environment. Just think if there are no municipalities agents or panchyat’s agents to clear the garbage our surroundings, as well to clear the drains.

If there are garbage and trash littered here and there, or if there is open drain water lying stagnent around where we live, the probability of poor health increases, Thats why public cleanliness is also an important contribution to an individuals health. Except of these, Social equality and harmonious relationships among our population  are necessary for the individual health.

(2) The various mode of transmission of infectious disease are following:

(i) Air-borne diseases – Common cold, Pneumonia and Tuberculosis. Such disease causing microbes are spread throughout the air. The transmission of these microbes occurs through the little droplets coughed out by an infected person who sneezes or coughs. A person in the vicinity of such a person can inhale these disease causing microbes and may become infected.

(ii)Water-borne diseases – Cholera, Infectious diseases can also spread through water. These occur when a stool from someone suffering from an infectious gut disease, such as cholera or amoebiasis, gets mixed with the drinking water used by people living nearby. The cholera-infested bacteria can enter new hosts through the water they drink and can cause disease in them.

(iii) Sexually-transmitted diseases – Syphilis and AIDS. Both of these pathogens are transmitted by sexual contact from one partner to the other. However, such sexually transmitted diseases are not spread by casual physical contact such as Handshake, Hugs etc.

(iv) Formite borne diseases – Articles coming in contact with the patients act as sources of infection. For example: door handles, taps, garments, utensils, crockery, etc.

(v) Spread of disease through vectors – Many animals which live with us may carry diseases. These animals can transfer infecting agents from a sick person to another potential host. Thus, these animals act as intermediaries or vectors. For example – female Anopheles mosquitos are vectors of disease, malaria.

(3) The general ways of preventing infectious disease are as pointed below:-

(a) To avoid exposure to air borne microbes, adopt living conditions that are not overcrowded.

(b) To prevent exposure to water-borne microbes, safe drinking water should be provided.

(c) To avoid vector borne infections we can provide clean environment as it would not allow mosquito breeding.

(4) Principal of Treatment:

Five principal of treatment of disease is as follow….

(a) we should avoid ellergy substances.

(b) We take proper bathing.

(c) we always drink hot water.

(d) We take advised by the doctor.

(e) Take medical time to time.

(5) Aids

Virus is responsible for this disease.

How Does it Spread:

The AIDS disease usually spreads through unprotected sexual contacts.

The AIDS disease also spread through the use of infected needles for injections.

An AIDS infected mother can transmit the virus to her child during pregnancy or during birth.

Prevention of Aids

People should be knowledalise, if he/or she not know how this disease is transparent.

Sexual contact with unknown person should be avoided.

Sterilised needles may be provided to drug addicts.

Malaria

Protozoa parasite Plasmodium are responsible for this disease. This disease spreads through the bite of an insect vector – the female Anopheles mosquito.

Symptoms of Malaria

(i) Patient should suffer headache, nausea, muscular pain etc.

(ii) Patient should felt extreme cold and shivers.

(iii) Patient should have high fever, faster respiration and heart beat.

Prevention of Malaria

(i) Wire-gauge should be used on doors and windows of houses to prevent entry of mosquitoes.

(ii) Insect repellents should be used to prevent mosquito bites.

(iii) One should sleep mosquito nets.

(6) (i) Tuberculosis (T.B.) :- T.B. is an infectious disease which is communicated from one person to another directly or indirectly. It is caused by the bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. T.B. can affect all parts of the body such as lungs, lymph glands, bones, intestine etc.

(ii) Cholera – Cholera is an acutely infectious, fatal disease and is more common during overcrowded fairs, festivals and after floods. Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. It is transmitted by flies, contaminated water and food.

(iii) Typhoid – Typhoid is most common communicable disease in India. Typhoid fever is common in humans of the age 1to 15 years age group. Typhoid is caused by a rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Human infection is direct.

 

(iv) Diarrhoea – Diarrhoea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faeces. The diarrhoea spreads through infection by contaminated food, water, drinks, hands, clothes, etc. The causative agents of diarrhoea are mainly bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Shigella dysentiriae, Campylobacter jejuri and Salmonella.

(v) Peptic Ulcers – Peptic Ulcers are painful bleeding areas within the stomach and the deudenum. They were once considered to be caused by increased gastric acidity due to stress and life style of the afflicted persons.

(7) Some important Viral disease of Human beings:

(i) Influenza

(ii) Malaria

(iii) Jaundices

(iv) Rabies

(v) AIDS

(vi) Polio

(vii) T.B.

(viii) Cholera

(ix) Typhoid

(x) Diarrhoea

Influenza: Influenza is commonly called flu. It is caused by an influenza virus. There exist 3 types of influenza viruses – A, B and C.

Malaria: Protozoa parasite Plasmodium are responsible for this disease. This disease spreads through the bite of an insect vector – the female Anopheles mosquito.

Jaundices: Jaundice is the disease of liver. Since liver is a very important organ in body, so its inflammation due to jaundice affect digestion adversely.

Rabies: The bite of mad dog and some other mad mammals such as monkeys, cats or rabbits cause rabies. Which is fatal virus disease caused by a rabies virus or lyssa virus.

AIDS: Virus is responsible for this disease. The AIDS disease usually spreads through unprotected sexual contacts.

Polio: Polio is the disease of the nervous system caused by one of the smallest known virus called polio virus.

T.B.:  is most common communicable disease in India. Typhoid fever is common in humans of the age 1to 15 years age group. Typhoid is caused by a rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Human infection is direct.

Cholera: Cholera is an acutely infectious, fatal disease and is more common during overcrowded fairs, festivals and after floods. Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio Cholerae. It is transmitted by flies, contaminated water and food.

Typhoid: Typhoid is most common communicable disease in India. Typhoid fever is common in humans of the age 1to 15 years age group. Typhoid is caused by a rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Human infection is direct.

Diarrhoea: Diarrhoea is an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid faeces. The diarrhoea spreads through infection by contaminated food, water, drinks, hands, clothes, etc. The causative agents of diarrhoea are mainly bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Clostridium botulinum, Shigella dysentiriae, Campylobacter jejuri and Salmonella.

(8) (a) Tuberculosis: is most common communicable disease in India. Typhoid fever is common in humans of the age 1to 15 years age group. Typhoid is caused by a rod-shaped and motile bacterium, called Salmonella typhi which is commonly found in the intestine of human beings. Human infection is direct.

#Symptoms: The patient feels sick and weak. There is a loss of appetite and weight.

#Prevention: Vigorous public health measures are the best method of prevention. Other preventive measures include isolation and proper rehabilitation of the patient.

Immunization with BCG vaccination prevents tuberculosis.

(b) Polio: Polio is the disease of the nervous system caused by one of the smallest known virus called polio virus.

#Symptoms: Sore throat and headache. Patient should suffer from fever, vomiting, muscular pain, tingling sensation in lymbs and ultimately paralysis.

#Prevention: Complete rest and Physiotherapy is helpful in the beginning. Now a days Oral Polio Vaccine is given orally to the children. OPV is a live allenuated viral strain taken by mouth which colonises the gut and induces immunity.

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