Dr PS Verma VK Aggarwal Class 9 Biology 1st Chapter Improvements in Food Resources Solution

Dr PS Verma Dr. VK Aggarwal Solution Class 9 Biology 1st Chapter – “Improvements in Food Resources” in here.

Short Answers Questions (Carrying 2 marks each) – Page Number: 63

(1) The difference between Micronutrient and Macronutrients are following:

Micronutrients are required in very small amounts whereas, Macronutrients are required in large quantities.

Concentration of micronutrients is quite below whereas Concentration of each macronutrient in plants is more that 1mg/ gm of dry matter.

Example of Micronutrient: Irion, Boron etc.

Example of Macronutrient: Nitrogen, Potassium etc.

(2) Nutrients and their sources are following:

Source Nutrients
Air Carbon, Oxygen
Water Hydrogen
Soil Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium, Sulphur

Iron, Magnese, Boron, Zinc etc.


(3) Plants get nutrient by air, water and soil.

(4) The three most important nutrient for the plant growth are Carbon ©, Oxygen (O), Hydrogen (H).

(5) Macronutrients are: Sulphur, Nitrogen, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium, Phosphorus.

Micronutrients are: Iron, Chlorine, Copper, Manganese, Zinc, Molybdenum.

(6) Advantages of using manure are following:

(i) Manure enrich the soil with nutrients. They replenish the general deficiency of nutrients in the soil.

(ii) It adds humus to the soil which restores the soil texture, for better retention of water and aeration of soil.

(7) Two limitations are following:

(i) Manures are not nutrient specific and hence are not much useful.

(ii) A manure are not able to fulfill high and rapid demand of nutrient required by improved high yielding hybrid varieties of crops.

(8) A manure is a natural substance. It is obtained by the decomposition of animal waste suchas gobar of cattle and plant residues. Whereas A fertilizer is a human made substance. It is an inorganic salt or an organic compound.

A manure contains small amount of essential plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Whereas Fertilizer are very rich in plant nutrients suchas Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

(9) Two advantage of fertilizer over manure are following:

(i) Fertilizer are very rich in plant nutrients such as Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.

(ii) Being soluble in water, a fertilizer is readily absorbed by the crop plants.

(10) Due to this, the pond water would acquire a high concentration of nitrates and phosphates which would result in the excessive growth of algae and phytoplankton.

(11)  Eutrophication is the excessive richness of nutrients in a lake or other body of water, frequently due to run-off from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life.

Example: During rains the nutrients from the fields are washed away and get accumulated in nearby water bodies.

(12) Continued use of chemical fertilizer reduce the soil fertility.

(13) Various methods of fertilizer application are:

Broadcasting Application; Placement Application; Foliar application:

Broadcasting is uniform distribution over the whole cropped field. Placement application in bands or in pockets near the plants or plant rows. Foliar application using low or high volume sprayers, the fertilizers are sprayed covering the plants.

(14) The difference between Farmyard manure and compost manure are:

Farmyard manure (FYM) is the decomposed mixture of cattle excreta, urine, litter and leftover organic matter suchas roughage or fodder whereas, Compost is prepared from farm and town refuge suchas vegetable and animal refuse, faecal matter of human beings, sewage waste, weeds, crop stubble, straw, rice hulls, forest litter etc.

A well decomposed farmyard manure contains about 0.5 percent nitrogen, 0.2 percent phosphorus pent oxide and 0.5 percent potassium mono oxide. Whereas The nutrient contents of town compost are about 1.4% nitrogen, 1.0% phosphorus pentaoxide and 1.4% potassium monoxide.

(15) Manures are natural fertilizer.

The different types of manures are : Farmyard Manure, Compost, Green Manure.

How do they effect us:  They enrich the soil with nutrients. They replenish the general deficiency of nutrients in the soil.

(ii) It adds humus to the soil which restores the soil texture, for better retention of water and aeration of soil.

(16) Green manures are generally quick growing leguminous and non leguminous plants.

Example: Cow pea or Lobia, Lentil or Masur.

(17) Fertilizer are one of the major components for obtaining higher yields specially in expensive farming practices.

On the basis of the availability of nutrients fertilizer are devided into four groups.

(i) Nitrogenous fertilizers

(ii) Phosphatic fertilizer

(iii) Potassic fertilizer

(iv) Complex fertilizers.

(18) Organisms which enrich the soil with nutrients called biofertilizers. It is used for specific crop plants. Ex: pulses, rice etc.

(19) This is because its roots have root nodules which have nitrogenous bacteria called Rhizobium. This bacteria fixes atmospheric nitrogen and the plants converts nitrogen into various nitrogenous compounds.

(20) Irrigation is essential because:

(i) The supply of water by irrigation is regular and reliable.

(ii) Irrigation water supplied by rivers in flood often carries silt which adds to soil of the fields, enhancing fertility and crop yield.

(21) Excessive irrigation water to the soil helps to reduce the salinity of the soil. However if the water is allowed to evaporate in the fields, salt content of soil will increase.

(22) Three effects of excessive irrigation are:

(i) Causes water logging.

(ii) Increases salinity in the soil.

(iii) The roots do not get proper aeration and thats why they die.

(23) Water should be used judicious due to it helps cultivation of crops as well In desert areas where there is scarcity of water, water is supplied through irrigation practices so that drought can be happen.

(24) The advantages of Irrigation are following:

(i) Crop plants are irrigated with freshwater to supply two essential elements to them, hydrogen and oxygen. Both of these elements are present in water molecules and are necessary for growth and developments of crop plants.

(ii) Irrigation of crop fields is necessary to provide sufficient moisture for the germination of seeds, as seeds do not germinate in dry soils.

(25) The efficiency of irrigation can be increase by River valley system as well Drip and Sprinkler system.

(26) The various factors which are responsible for loss of stored food grains are:

Biotic factors and Abiotic factors.

Biotic factors such as insect, rodents, birds, mites and bacteria. And Abiotic factors suchas Effect of temperature, Effect of moisture, Effects of humidity.

(27) Godown, warehouses and stores should be properly cleaned, dried and repaired. Pathways should be provided between the stacks of grain-filled bags, for the periodic inspection, for spraying or for fumigation.

(28) The harvested food grains should be dried by spreading them over plastic sheets or on cemented floor. All the sun dried food grains are allowed to cool to the room temperature before storing them.

(29) (i) It should be easy to clean.

(ii) It should provide protection from rodents, birds and other animals.

(iii) It should be waterproof and moisture proof.

(30) Some of the preventive measures of pests are the following:

(i) Use of resistant varieties of crop plants.

(ii) Selection of optimum time of showing the crops.

(iii) Crop rotation and multiple cropping.

(31) During the grain storage, if the loss is due to the biotic factors which includes insects, rodents, birds, mites, fungi and bacteria, then it shows the presence of pests in the grain stores.

(32) Those pesticides which can destroy insects by forming toxic fumes are called fumigants and process of their use called fumigation. And It is more effective than spraying whereas Spraing is less effective than Fumigation.

(33) Milk is a very nutritious food.

Fat: 3.60 Protein: 4.00 Sugar: 4.50 Minerals: 0.70 Water: 87.20 Vitamins:

B1, B2, B12, D, E

(34) Four animal which provide us food: Cow, Goat, Hen, Buffalo.

(35) The names of animals product which are used as food are Milk, egg, meat, honey.

(36) Roughage: It largely contains fibres such as green fodder, silage, hay and legumes.

Concentrates: Concentrates are low in fibres and contain relatively high proteins and other nutrients. Concentrate include cotton seeds, oil seeds, oats, bareley, jowar, bajra, gram and their by products.

(37) The daily average feed of a cow given below:

Green fodder and dry grasses: 15 to 20 kg

Grain Mixture (Concentrates) 4 to 5 kgs

Water 30 to 35 liters.

(38) The source of concentrates are cotton seeds, oil seeds, oats, bareley, jowar, bajra, gram and their byproducts suchas wheat, barn, gram husk, oil seed cakes and molasses.

(39) (i) They are sheltered under roofed shades.

(ii) The floor of the cattle shed is made brick lined.

(iii) Clean faclilates so that their sitting place dry.

(iv) The sheds or shelters should be provided with cross ventilationwith sufficient number of inlets and outlets.

Page No. 64 Solution

(40) We will suggest Artificial method of breeding as because as because it gives improved breeds. This method is widely used to improve the qualities of cow and others. Name of some improved breeds of cow Karan Swiss, Karan – Fries, Frieswal.

(41) (a) Cows are classified as draught, dairy ad dual purpose breeds. There are 26 breeds of cow in India. Some of the cattle breeds in India are Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni etc.

(b) There 10 breeds of buffalo in India. Some of the breeds of buffaloes in India are Murrah, Mehsana, Surti.

(42) The four steps involved in artificial Insemination are:

(i) The semen should be obtained from high quality male animal.

(ii) The female animal selected should be healthy and of sound breeding age.

(iii) Artificial insemination should be carried out only at the proper heat period of female animal.

(iv) The instruments which are used in it should be properly sterilised.

(43) The process of injecting the semen obtained from de4sired male bull of high milk yielding breed into the genitical or reproductive tract of female animal during heat period called artificial insemination.

Two advantages are following:

(i) Bulls of selected breeds are kept in climatic conditions most suitable for their healthy living.

(ii) The bulls are reared in most hygienic conditions under the direct supervision of experts.

(44) The four symptoms are:

(i) Fever accompanied by appearance of small nodules.

(ii) Constipation followed by sever diarrhea, discharge from the eyes and nostril.

(iii) Marked changes in behaviour, restless.

(iv) Irritation, blisters and eruptions on the skin surface.

(45) (a) Mastitis: Fever, udders become swollen, milk is watery.

(b) Foot and Mouth: Blisters appear on the mouth and foot resulting in extreme soreness os the parts. Excessive salivation, Inability to work etc.

(46) This is because they are bigger in size, they are growing fast as well as lay more number of eggs and produce big size of egg.

(47) (i) Through selective hybridization, yield and quality of fishes are improved.

(ii) Economically important desired fishes are raised in a small area.

(iii) Fishes are made to breed in different seasons.

(iv) There is little mortality in the younger stages of the fishes.

(48) The first phase of the life of poultry is growing period. During this period they need enough space. Overcrowding tends to suppress their growth. The feed is given during this time in a restricted and calculated manner. During the laying period feed with vitamins, minerals and micronutrients also influence hatchability of eggs.

(49) The advantages of Bee keeping are following:

(i) Bee wax is used by human beings for various purposes like making of cosmatics, cold xreams, shaving creams, candles, lipstics etc.

(ii) Poison of bee is used in manufacturing of certain Ayurvedic and Homeopathic medicine.

(50) The advantages of Composite Fish culture is that if several species of fish are stocked together in a pond, then the production increases with the same cost.

Short Answer Type Questions (Carrying 3 marks each) Page Number 64

(1) Plants sources of food: Seeds, (Cereals, Pulses, Oil seed crop, Nuts or dry fruits), Fruits, Vegetables (Roots, Stems, Leafy vegetable, Fruit vegetables), Species, Fodder crops etc.

Animal sources of food: Meat, Egg, Milk etc.

(2) High production of food grains called green revolution.

The common objectives of crop improvements are:

(i) Crop Production Management

(ii) Crop variety improvement

(iii) Crop protection management.

(3) We get from:

Cereals: Wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum etc.

Pulses: Chicken pea gram, pea, black gram, green gram, masoor etc.

Fruits: apple, orange, mango etc.

Vegetables: Potato, Carrot, Spinach, Lettuce, raddish, capsicums, oats, sudan grass, tea, coffee, chocolate etc.

(4) The objective of mixed cropping is to minimize the risk and insure against the crop failure due to abnormal weather condition.

Crops selected for Mixed Cropping:

(i) The different crops to be grown together are so selected that the products and waste materials from one crop simulates the growth of the other crop.

(ii) Care is taken to select crops that do not compete with each other for light, nutrients and water like one crop is of long duration and the other crop is of short duration. If one crop is deep rooted the the other has shallow pool.

(5) The difference between mixed and inter cropping are following:

(i) The aims of Mixed cropping is to minimize risk of crop failure whereas The aims of intercropping is to increase productivity per unit area.

(ii) In mixed cropping, Seeds of two crops are mixed before sowing whereas In Inter cropping seeds of two crops are not mixed.

(iii) Mixed Cropping, It involves no set pattern of rows of crops; whereas Intercropping, It involves set patterns of rows of crops.

(6) Advantages of Mixed Cropping:

(i) The risk of total crop[ failure due to uncertain monsoon is reduced.

(ii) Chances of pest infestation are greatly reduced.

Disadvantages of Mixed Cropping

(i) Spraying for pest control to individual crop is difficult.

(ii) Harvesting and Thrashing of crops separately not possible.

(7) Intercropping is a practice of growing two or more crops simultaneously in a same field in definite row patterns with the objective of increasing productivity per unit area.

HOW Intercropping is differ from Mixed CROPPING:
Intercropping is the improved version of mixed cropping. All the crop combinations in mixed cropping can also be practiced in Intercropping, but row patterns are definite, example: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3.

(8) The main disadvantage of Crop rotation is we can not grow a crop continuously in the same field.

(9) Three main criteria are:

(i) Availability of moisture through rain or irrigation.

(ii) Status of nutrients in the soil.

(iii) Duration of crop (short or long).

(10)  This is because they are use to increase soil fertility. Those crops which requires  high fertility, may be grown after growing legumes. This practice will promote build up of diseases and insect pests and decreases the similar nutrients from the soil.

(11) Crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to produce new kind called hybridisation. Crossing may be between 2 different varieties (intervarietal cross breeding), between 2 different species of the same genus (interspecific cross-breeding) and between different genera (Intergenic cross breeding).

(12) The plant breeding is production of new varieties or strains bya program of artificial selection spanning several generations of the organism concerned.

The various method of plant breeding are Hybridisation, Mutation breeding, Polyploidy, DNA recombinant technology etc.

(13) Biological control of weeds involves the deliberate use of insects or some other organisms which consume and specifically destroy the weed plants.

(14) The plant disease are following:

(i) Seed-borne disease: These diseases spread through seeds.

(ii) Soil-borne disease: These diseases spread through the soil and mostly affect roots and stems of crop plants.

(iii) Air-borne disease: These plant diseases arre transmitted by the air.

(iv) Water-borne disease: Pathogens of these crop diseases are transmitted by the water.

(15) Three different ways in which In sect pests can attack the crop plants are:-

(i) The chewing insects destroy all sort of crop plants by cutting root, stem and leaf of crop plants by the help of their chewing mouth parts.

(ii) The sucking insects suck the cell sap from various parts of the plant.

(iii) The internal feeders live inside the plants parts, they make holes and feed on developing rains.

(16) The method of controlling insect pests are following:

(i) Root cutting types of insects are controlled by mixing insecticide in soil.

(ii) stem and leaf cutting and boring type of insects are controlled by dusting or spraying the contact insecticides.

(iii) sap sucking insects can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides.

(17) (a) Narrow leaved ravi season weed: Wild sorghum, Cyperus rotundas

(b) Broad leaved kharif season weed: Amaranthus viridis, Trianthema.

(18) The various method of weed control are follows:

(i) Mechanical methods: Uprooting, weeding with trowel, hand hoeing, interculture, ploughing, burning and flooding.

(ii) Cultural methods: They include the following methods: proper bed preparation, timely showing of crops, intercropping and crop rotation.

(iii) Chemical methods: Chemical weed killers are sprayed on weeds to destroy them.

(iv) Biological control: Biological control of weeds involves the deliberate use of insects or some other organisms which consume and specifically destroy the weed plants.

(19) The various effects of weeds are following:

(i) Weeds compete with the crops of nutrients, water, space an light, as a result the growth of the crop is reduced.

(ii) Some weeds may produce toxic substance which may interfere with growth of crop plants.

(iii) At the time of harvesting weeds get mixed with crop’s produce to downgrade its quality.

(20) Crop’s pest is any destructive organism which causes great economic loss by destroying crop plants or products obtained from them.

Some preventive measure to control pests are following:-

(i) Root cutting types of insects are controlled by mixing insecticide in soil.

(ii) stem and leaf cutting and boring type of insects are controlled by dusting or spraying the contact insecticides.

(iii) sap sucking insects can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides.

(21) The advantage of insect resistant varieties are that they do not get infested with pests. Their genes are modifies thats why pests cannot harm them.

Therefore pesticides are not used to protect them diseases.

Long Answer Type Questions (Carrying 5 marks each) Page No. 64

(1) Difference between fertilizer and manure are following:

(i) Manure is a natural substance. It is obtained by the decomposition of animal wastes suchas dung of cattle and buffaloes and plant residues whereas Fertilizer is a human made substance. It is an organic compound or organic salt.

(ii) A manure is not nutrient specific whereas a fertilizer is nutrient specific.

(iii)  A manure is cheap whereas Fertilizer is expensive.

(iv) Manure made at rural homes whereas Fertilizer made at factories.

(v) A manure adds a great amount of organic matter in the form of humus in the soil whereas  A fertilizer does not add any humus to the soil.

Example of manure: Human and Animal excreta, rice hulls, rotten vegetable etc.

Example of Fertilizer: Urea, Ammonium sulphate, Ammonium Nitrate.

Advantage of Fertilizer:

THE Advantage of manure are following :

(i) Fertilizers are very rich in plant nutrients suchas nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.

(ii) A fertilizer is nutrient specific.

(iii) Being soluble in water, a fertilizer is readily absorbed by the crop plants.

Disadvantage of Fertilizer:

(i) Over use of fertilizer is harmful for soil.

(ii) A fertilizer is costly and is prepared in factories.

(2) Mechanism of Compost :

For preparing compost, a trench of suitable size whose length 4 to 5 m and breadth 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.0 to 1.8 m deep is dug.

A layer of well mixed refuse of about 30cm thickness is spread in the trench. This layer is well moistened by water paste of cattle dung and water or earth and water.

A second layer of mixed refuse is spread in trench till the heap rises to a height of 45 to 60 cm above ground level.

Afterthat the top of this heap is covered by this layer of moist bearth.

After 3 – 3.5 month, the partially decomposed biomass is taken out of the trench and collected in conical heap. This heap is moistened if necessary and covered with earth.

After 2 months, the compost is ready to use in fields.

(3) Manures are rich in organic matter but are poor supplier of nutrients. So, the cultivated field which is supplied with manures only may suffer from the deficiency of nutrients and not give very good yield.

The cultivated field which is supplied with fertilizers only may face drainage problem and water logging due to lack of organic matter in the soil. This may harm the crop and the yield. Use of fertilizers over long periods of time can destroy the soil texture by killing the microorganisms that recycle nutrients in the soil.

(4) The process of supplying water to crop plants by means of canals, wells, reservoirs, tube wells etc is known as irrigation.

Why Is Irrigation is essential:

(i) Crop plants are irrigated with freshwater to supply two essential elements to them (hydrogen and Oxygen). Both of these elements are present in water molecules are necessary for growth and development of crop plants.

(ii) It is necessary to provide sufficient moisture for the germination of seeds.

(iii) It is necessary to increase the number of aerial branches in crop plants so as to get a good crop yield.

Excessive irrigation causes water logging and increases surface salinity. In water logged soil, plants do not get proper aeration.

(5) The various types of Irrigation system in India:-

(i) Canal system:- In this system, the human made canals receive water from one or two reservoirs or from rivers.

(ii) Tanks:- Tanks are small storage reservoirs, which catch and store the runoff of smaller catchment areas.

(iii) Wells: Wells are constructed wherever exploitable ground water is present. Wells arte of two types: Dug wells, Tube wells.

(iv) River lift system: This system is more useful in those area, in where canal flow is insufficient or irregular due to inadequate water flow.

(v) Drip system and Sprinkler system: Overhead pipes for spraying water and sprinkler system save a lot of water and are more natural.

Efficiency of applied water can be increased in agriculture by rain water harvesting as well as water shed management.

(6) The difference between mixed and inter cropping are following:

(i) The aims of Mixed cropping is to minimize risk of crop failure whereas The aims of intercropping is to increase productivity per unit area.

(ii) In mixed cropping, Seeds of two crops are mixed before sowing whereas In Inter cropping seeds of two crops are not mixed.

(iii) Mixed Cropping, It involves no set pattern of rows of crops; whereas Intercropping, It involves set patterns of rows of crops.

Advantages of Mixed Cropping:

(i) The risk of total crop[ failure due to uncertain monsoon is reduced.

(ii) Chances of pest infestation are greatly reduced.

Advantages of Intercropping:

(i) It makes better use of the natural resources of sunlight, land and water.

(ii) As per nox mixed of seeds before sowing, fertilizers can be added as per requirements of crops.

(7) (i) Introduction – This refers to the transportation of crop plants from the place of cultivation to the place where grown earlier.

(ii) Selection – This process involves the selection of most desirable offspring of a variety of plant for controlled propagation. There are two patterns of selection: Mass Number, Pure line selection.

(iii) Hybridisation – It involves the crossing between genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new kind. Crossing may be between two different varieties (intervarietal cross – breeding) or between the two different species of the same genus (inter specific cross – breeding) and between different genera (intergeneric cross – breeding).

The improved varieties of

Rice: Jaya Heera.l

Maize: HIM128, Shakti

Soyabeen: PK 327, Pusa 24

Sunflower: MSF H 8, Arun

Mustard: Kranti, Pusa Agarmi.

(8) The various methods which are used to control plant disease:

(i) seed treatment Thiram 2.5 g/kg seed.

(ii) Spray Bavistin (1 g/l water) at 10 days interval. Spray Dithane M45 at 2 g/l water at 10 days intervals.

(iii) avoid water logging.

(iv) Spray the crop with 0.2% Ziram or Mehab.

(9) The various preventive measures against insect pests are discuss below:

(i) Root cutting types of insects are controlled by mixing insecticide in soil.

(ii) stem and leaf cutting and boring type of insects are controlled by dusting or spraying the contact insecticides.

(iii) sap sucking insects can be controlled by spraying systemic insecticides.

(10) The food which are eaten by animals known as feed.

The different type of feed are Roughage and Concentrates.

Feed according to age and functions are:

(i) Maintenance requirements – The food is required by the animal to support it to perform the basic functions of life.

(ii) Milk producing requirements – It includes the type of food during lactation period. Maintenance part of the ration depends upon the body weight and age while milk production part is dependent upon the level and composition of milk.

Page No. 65 Solution

(11) The process of injecting the semen obtained from desired male bull of high milk yielding breed into the genitical or reproductive tract of female animal during heat period called artificial insemination.

Technique of Artificial Insemination:-

The semen of healthy and tough animal of high milk yielding breed is collected and preserved by freezing or chemical methods.

This preserved semen is then injected artificially into the genital tract of the female animal during heat period.

(12) Prevention of Animal Disease:

(i) They are sheltered under roofed shades.

(ii) The floor of the cattle shed is made brick lined.

(iii) Clean faclilates so that their sitting place dry.

(iv) The sheds or shelters should be provided with cross ventilationwith sufficient number of inlets and outlets.

(13) Honey bee lives in a colony and different tasks are done by different groups of bees in the same colony. According to their roles, there are three types of castes in the colony of bee:

(i) Queen

((ii) Drone

(iii) Worker

Descript of each below…

(i) Queen – The body size of queen is much larger than other castes of bees of the colony. Queen is responsible for laying eggs and lays upto 2000 eggs everyday of each season.

(ii) Drone – It is haploid, fertile male. These are larger in size than workers. They are stingless and their main role is to mate with queen and remain in colony to sleep and eat honey.

(iii) Worker – Worker is diploid, sterile female. Its size is smallest among the caste of bees. They are the active members of the colony. For various outdoor and indoor chores, the workers are provided with a variety of organs such as hypopharyngeal glands (for secretion of bee milk), wax glands (for building cells of comb), pollen baskets on their hind legs (for collection of pollen), sucking type mouth parts (for collecting the nectar), high level secretion of invertase enzyme (in the honey sac for honey formation), a sting at the tip of the abdomen (for defence of the colony.

The values that can be seen in the organisation of bee colony that, they provide a good example of team work and division of labour.

(14) The desirable characters of bee variety is Italian bee, which is suitable for keeping as,

(i)  They are gentle in nature.

(ii) It has good honey collection capacity.

(iii) It has the ability to protect itself from enemies.

(iv) It has prolific queen with less swarming.

(15) The quality and taste of honey depends upon depends upon various things. One of them are PESTURage.

Pasturage of honey bees include a variety of flowering plants such as Mango, Coconut, Almond, Tamarind, Litchi, Cotton, Apple, mahua, Coffee, Rubber plants, Neem.

(16) For increse of production, the commo in Poultry, Fisheries and bee keeping are folloewd:

(i) Quality.

(ii) Low maintenance requirement.

(iii) Tolerance to high temperature.

(iv) Care to prevent mortality.

(v) To increase their productivity, cross breading must be done.

(17) Differentiae between capture fisheries, inland fisheries and aquaculture are following:

Capture Fishery:

(i) It is method of obtaining fish from natural resources.

(ii) It is undertaken in both inland as well as marine waters.

Culture Fishery:

(i) It is a method of obtaining fish from fish farming.

(ii) Undertaken mostly inland and near sea shore.

Aquaculture:

(i) It is a method of obtaining fish from fresh water.

(ii) Most fish production is through aquaculture.

(18) Workers are the most active members of the colony, they have almost all responsibility in their shoulders. The function of age change with age. During the first half of their life, workers are engaged in indoor, duties as scavengers, nurse bees, fanner bees and guard bees.

During the 2nd half, they perform outside duty as scout bees and forager bees.


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