In this topic we are going to discuss about the commonly observed natural situation called as Cyclone. We have learnt earlier that, when air flow with very high speed becomes dangerous for our environment. In June-2020, a very dangerous and disastrous cyclone named “NISARG” had strike the coastal areas of Maharashtra, later on it proceeded towards Madhya Pradesh state, which travelled with speed around 120 kmph, and had very disastrous effect on trees, electricity poles, farm, and residential areas too. How these cyclones are formed? Why they become so dangerous?
We know that the temperature conditions on earth are always uneven due to shape of earth. Equatorial region are hotter than Polar Regions. The uneven heating of ocean water also contributes in making wind flow uneven. Which makes wind to blow with different pressure conditions throughout with different speeds?
In summer, ocean water gets evaporated and water gets converted in to vapours, which forms clouds. Due to difference in a temperature warm air rises up, and cooler descents in the regions from 300 latitude to North or South Pole and then towards equatorial region with air flows. The heat from the vapours releases to atmosphere when they starts converting in to water during rain. This heat released, warmth’s the air and makes it to move up. At the same time air pressure also decreased and colder air occupies the place of warm air. These process is repeated again and again till the low pressure system creates high speed (>120 kmph) winds with surrounding. The formation of this high speed winds then called as Cyclone.
Above discussion concludes that cyclones depends on the parameters like temperature, humidity, pressure, wind speed and the direction.
Cyclones are also called Hurricane in USA and Typhoon in Japan.
Basic components of cyclones are
- Eye:- The region of the cyclones with warmth temperature, low pressure located at the centre is known as eye of cyclone. The diameter of the cyclone eye varies from 10 km -100 km. This is the most hazardous area of cyclones.
- Eye wall:- The air with very high speeds and different diameter which are whirled around the eye of cyclone are called as Eye wall. The destructive force is very large here as it moves with higher speeds. Large destruction takes place when it strikes trees, buildings etc.
Q. Which cyclone did strike on coast of Maharashtra in June 2020?
Q. Explain the formation of thunderstorm?
Ans. The convection of warm and cool air condenses vapours which rises upwards and gets freezes and falls again downwards which produces lightning and sound, this is called as thunderstorm.
Q. What is an eye of cyclone?
Ans:The region of the cyclones with warmth temperature, low pressure located at the centre is known as eye of cyclone.